1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Dolichos L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    Placed in subtribe Phaseolinae, allied to Macrotyloma and Nesphostylis (Thulin et al., 2004)
    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical and subtropical forest, woodland, bushland and thicket, wooded grassland and grassland
    Distribution
    Africa (mostly Zambezian and Sudanian to Somalia-Masai and Afromontane regions; c. 55 spp.) and SE Asia (5-6 spp. in the Indian subcontinent, S China, Indo-China and Malesia)
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbs or shrubs, climbing, prostrate or frequently erect; rootstock frequently very large and woody, containing a reddish resinous substance which also occurs as dots in other tissues of some species
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately3-foliolate, subdigitate or 1-foliolate, often not developing until flowering is well under way; stipules and stipels present
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, fasciculate or in falsely terminal or axillary false racemes or umbels
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, the upper pair of lobes joined to form an entire to 2-toothed lip
    Corolla
    Corolla small to medium-sized, yellow or purple, glabrous; standard ± round, frequently auriculate and provided with short, oblong, conic or lamelliform appendages usually only about 2 mm. long; wings obovate or oblong, not very narrow; keel not twisted but often beaked
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary 3–12-ovuled; style swollen, thickened, often ± twisted towards the base, usually glabrous (sometimes pubescent in South African species) and mostly with a ring of hairs around the terminal capitate stigma
    Fruits
    Pods straight or curved, compressed, not septate
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed; hilum short and usually central; aril mostly developed only to a slight extent.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Herbs or shrubs, often suffrutescent with annual stems from a perennial rootstock, prostrate, climbing or erect; rootstock often large and woody or fibrous, containing a reddish resin which occurs as reddish dots in other tissues of some species.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3-foliolate, pinnate or rarely digitate, or l-foliolate, often developing after the flowers; stipules and stipels present.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, sometimes appearing falsely terminal; flowers solitary or arranged in fascicles (clusters), in pseudoracemes or occasionally subcapitate.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, the upper pair of lobes almost or completely fused to form an entire or bifid tip.
    Corolla
    Corolla small to medium-sized, pale to bright yellow or more commonly pale to deep purple, glabrous; standard roundish, often auriculate with small, oblong, cone-shaped appendages c. 2 mm long; wings obovate or oblong; keel not twisted (as in some species of Vigna) but often beaked.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free, rarely with a tooth at the filament base; anthers uniform.
    Pistil
    Ovary 3–12-ovuled; style swollen, thickened, often twisted towards the base, usually glabrous (pubescent in some South African species) and usually with a ring of hairs (penicillate) around the terminal capitate stigma.
    Fruits
    Pods straight or curved, laterally compressed, not septate.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed; hilum short and usually central; aril only slightly developed.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as ground cover, green manure, forage and shade plants; also as soap substitutes (from the roots of some species)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Dolichos L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 725 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 209.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 380–390 (1970).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 324 (1754) nom. conserv.
    • Sp. Pl.: 725 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Verdc. in K.B. 24: 380–390 (1970), nom. conserv. propos.
    • L., Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 324 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 725 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0