1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Entada Adans.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs, suffrutices or lianes; prickles absent or sometimes present.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2-pinnate; pinnae each with one to many pairs of leaflets.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of spiciform racemes or spikes, which are axillary or supra-axillary, solitary or clustered and often ± aggregated.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or male.
    Calyx
    Calyx gamosepalous, with 5 teeth.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, free or nearly so (or ± connate in species not occurring in our area), separated from the ovary-base by a very short perigynous zone composed of stamens adnate to an apparent corolla-tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, fertile; anthers with a usually very caducous apical gland.
    Fruits
    Pods straight or curved, flat or rarely spirally twisted, sometimes very large; at maturity the valves (but not the margins) splitting transversely into 1-seeded segments from which the outer layer (exocarp) of the pod-wall often peels off, the inner layer (endocarp) persisting as a closed envelope round the seed; the segments falling away from the margins, which persist as a continuous but empty frame.
    Seeds
    Seeds (in the African species at least) ± compressed, mostly elliptic or subcircular in outline, deep brown, smooth.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs, suffrutices or lianes; prickles absent or sometimes present
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate; pinnae each with one to many pairs of leaflets
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of spiciform racemes or spikes, which are axillary or supra-axillary, solitary or clustered and often ± aggregated
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or ♂
    Calyx
    Calyx gamosepalous, with 5 teeth
    Corolla
    Petals 5, free or nearly so (or ± connate in species not occurring in our area), separated from ovary-base by a very short perigynous zone composed of stamens adnate to an apparent corolla-tube
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, fertile; anthers with a usually very caducous apical gland
    Fruits
    Pods straight or curved, flat or rarely spirally twisted, sometimes very large; at maturity the valves (but not the sutures) splitting transversely into 1-seeded segments from which the outer layer (exocarp) of the pod-wall normally peels off, the inner layer (endocarp) persisting as a closed envelope round the seed; the segments falling away from the sutures, which persist as a continuous but empty frame
    Seeds
    Seeds (in the African species at least) ± compressed, mostly elliptic or subcircular, deep brown, smooth.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Vernacular
    drinking vine, matchbox bean, sea hearts, St. Thomas bean
    Habit
    Trees, shrubs and lianas
    Ecology
    Tropical lowland and riverine rain forest, seasonally dry forest, woodland and wooded grassland, bushland, thicket and dry scrub
    Distribution
    pantropical: Africa with 16 spp., predominantly in Sudanian and Zambezian regions, two extending to Madagascar; 3 spp. endemic to Madagascar; 5 spp. endemic to Indo-China and Malesia; 1 sp. in Neotropics; 3 spp. widespread and dispersed by ocean currents (E. rheedii Spreng. throughout the Palaeotropics; E. phaseoloides (L.) Merr. in Asia, Australasia and Pacific and E. gigas (L.) Fawcett & Rendle in Africa to Neotropics)
    Note
    Strongly supported as grouping with Elephantorrhiza in the Entada group (Luckow et al., 2003); the genus is much in need of revision as it is highly diverse in habit, fruit size, inflorescence architecture, presence or absence of tendrils and armature; anther glands occur in all species except those in Madagascar

    The tribe Mimoseae (sensu Bentham, 1875) is retained here simply as a matter of convenience. All recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that Ingeae and Acacieae are derived from within Mimoseae (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Käss & Wink, 1996; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), making it a paraphyletic group at best. The most recent studies indicate that it may not even be monophyletic with respect to the Caesalpinioideae (Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003).

    Although the outline of a new tribal classification of the mimosoids is emerging, we await better-supported phylogenies (based on more extensive data) before formalising new stable and useful groups. Some parts of the classification proposed here are better supported than others. Notably, the basal branches in Fig. 24 are poorly supported in most analyses and the relationships among the groups are likely to change as we acquire more data. As presently indicated (Luckow et al., 2003), the type genus Mimosa falls within the derived Piptadenia group which is in turn sister, and basally branching, to elements of Acacia and Ingeae (Fig. 24). A more narrowly circumscribed Mimoseae sens. strict. will thus leave the bulk of Mimoseae sens. lat. (i.e., as treated here) in need of new tribal allocation. The most conspicuous difference between the classification presented here and that of Lewis & Elias (1981) is the inclusion of tribe Parkieae within Mimoseae. The former was circumscribed based on imbricate aestivation of the calyx, and was considered the basal tribe within the Mimosoideae (Elias, 1981a). Recent phylogenetic analyses (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), indicate that the two genera in the Parkieae, Parkia and Pentaclethra, are not sister taxa (Fig. 24). Pentaclethra is nested within Mimoseae in Luckow et al. (2000), but is either sister to caesalpinioid taxa in Bruneau et al. (2001) and Herendeen et al. (2003a), or part of a basal polytomy with Mimoseae and caesalpinioid taxa (Luckow et al., 2003). Both Parkia and Pentaclethra are included in the tribe Mimoseae pending additional data and tribal recircumscription.

    Recent work (Luckow et al., submitted a) also indicates that the monospecific tribe Mimozygantheae should be subsumed in the Mimoseae near Piptadeniopsis and Prosopidastrum, currently in the Prosopis group. Otherwise, the informal groups within the Mimoseae recognised by Lewis & Elias (1981) are relatively well-supported by current phylogenies and only a few departures have been made from their system. Where relationships are either poorly supported or unresolved, the classification of Lewis & Elias (1981) is retained. The Xylia group is dismantled and the Adenanthera group recircumscribed to include Calpocalyx and Xylia . Desmanthus has been removed from the Dichrostachys group, as has Neptunia, in agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies (Harris et al., 1994; Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1995, 1997). A new group is erected to accommodate Piptadeniastrum which is well separated from Newtonia in the most recent phylogeny (Luckow et al., 2000; 2003), and another to accommodate Cylicodiscus, which is more closely related to the clade containing the Prosopis, Leucaena, Dichrostachys, and Piptadenia groups than it is to the Newtonia group. Neptunia is well supported as sister to Prosopidastrum in recent analyses (Luckow et al., 2003) and is included in the Prosopis group here. Relationships of genera in the Prosopis group are not resolved, but the group is retained here as there is no evidence that it is not monophyletic. Genera newly described since 1981 include Alantsilodendron, Calliandropsis, Kanaloa, and Lemurodendron. Alantsilodendron and Calliandropsis are placed in the Dichrostachys group, and Kanaloa in the Leucaena group based on phylogenetic analyses (Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1997; Luckow et al., 2000). Lemurodendron is tentatively included in the Newtonia group as suggested by Villiers & Guinet (1989). As treated here the Mimoseae comprises 40 genera and from (859)– 869–(879) species.

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Various species ( St. Thomas bean, matchbox bean, drinking vine ) used as livestock fodder, ground cover, green manure, fibre (in rope and storage bins), medicine, fish poisons, soap substitutes, firewood, charcoal and in traditional ceremonies; the large round drift seeds of the species listed above emerge from some of the biggest pods in the Leguminosae (over one metre in length) and are often used to make jewellery (' sea hearts ')

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius

    Entada Adans. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dupuy, D.J. [M334], Madagascar 63272.000

    First published in Fam. Pl. 2: 318 (1763)

    Accepted by

    • Tateishi, Y., Wakita, N. & Kajita, T. (2008). Taxonomic revision of the genus Entada (Leguminosae) in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 59: 194-210.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Benth. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30: 363 (1875).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 325
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Brenan in Kew Bull. 20: 361-378 (1966).
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 318 (1763).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 318 (1763)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0