1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Geophila D.Don

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Perennial forest-floor herbs, mostly with slender creeping stems which root at the nodes and have fibrous roots
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, with mostly long petioles; blades ovate-cordate to rounded-reniform; stipules interpetiolar, ovate, entire or bilobed at the apex
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, sometimes heterostylous, mostly in terminal umbels or sometimes solitary, often on long peduncles held erect from the main stems, occasionally with an involucre of quite conspicuous bracts
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube obovoid, the limb short, 5–7-lobed, the lobes subulate or linear, spreading or reflexed, persistent
    Corolla
    Corolla cylindrical or funnel-shaped; lobes 4–7, spreading or recurved; throat pilose inside
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–7, inserted in the corolla-tube; filaments filiform; anthers dorsifixed, included or exserted
    Disc
    Disc swollen
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular; ovules solitary in each locule, erect from the base, anatropous; style slender, included or exserted; stigma-lobes 2, linear, densely papillate or stigma subcapitate, bifid
    Fruits
    Drupe fleshy, containing 2 pyrenes; pyrenes plano-convex, dorsally compressed, obtusely ribbed, rugulose and often with an annular area at junction of ventral and dorsal surfaces, 1-seeded
    Seeds
    Seeds the same shape as the pyrenes, the ventral surface plane; testa membranous; endosperm corneous.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:1. 1989

    Habit
    Perennial forest floor herbs, mostly with slender creeping stems which root at the nodes and have fibrous roots.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, with mostly long petioles; blades ovate-cordate to rounded-renifonn; stipules interpetiolar, ovate, entire orbilobed at the apex.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, sometimes heterostylous, mostly in terminal umbels or sometimes solitary, often on long peduncles held erect from the main stems, occasionally with an involucre of quite conspicuous bracts.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube obovoid, the limb short, 5–7-lobed, the lobes subulate or linear, spreading or reflexed, persistent.
    Corolla
    Corolla cylindrical or funnel-shaped; lobes 4–7, spreading or recurved; throat pilose inside.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–7, inserted in the corolla tube; filaments filiform; anthers dorsifixed, included or exserted.
    Disc
    Disk swollen.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular; ovules solitary in each locule, erect from the base, anatropous; style slender, included or exserted; stigma lobes 2, linear, densely papillate or stigma subcapitate-bifid.
    Fruits
    Drupe fleshy, containing 2 pyrenes; pyrenes plano-convex, dorsally compressed, obtusely ribbed, rugulose and often with an annular area at junction of ventral and dorsal surfaces, 1-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds the same shape as the pyrenes, the ventral surface plane: testa membranous; endosperm corneous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Geophila D.Don appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mesquita, J.R. [356], Brazil K001199846

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 136 (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Sant'Ana Melhem, T., das Graças Lapa Wanderley, M., Ehlin Martins, S., Jung-Mendaçolli, S.L., Shepherd, G.J. & Kirizawa, M. (eds.) (2007). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo 5: 1-476. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo.
    • Delprete, P.G. & Cortés-B., R. (2006 publ. 2007). A synopsis of the Rubiaceae of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with a key to genera, and a preliminary species list Revista de Biologia Neotropical 3: 13-96.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 3: 220.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hepper in Taxon 9: 88 (1960) nom. conserv.
    • Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 136 (1825).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hepper in Taxon 9: 88 (1960), nom. conserv.
    • Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 136 (1825)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/