1. Family: Violaceae Batsch
    1. Hybanthus Jacq.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Northern America, Western Australia and Asia-Temperate..

    [FZ]

    Violaceae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Herbs, shrublets or shrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate or sessile, entire or ± serrate; stipules usually small and persistent, rarely foliaceous or deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of single flowers in the leaf axils or, more rarely, terminal racemes or axillary racemes or clusters; pedicels articulated.
    Flowers
    Flowers zygomorphic.
    Calyx
    Sepals almost equal, without a basal appendage.
    Corolla
    Petals unequal, the anterior one smaller, or usually much larger, than the others, unguiculate, with a short basal spur.
    Stamens
    Stamens with filaments of varying length, free or ± coherent, the two anterior ones (and rarely also the lateral ones) with free or coherent appendages which extend into the spur and may secrete nectar ("spur-appendages"); anthers free or coherent, with a thin dorsal prolongation of the connective ("connective-appendage").
    Pistil
    Ovary with 3 placentae each bearing (2) 3–? ovules; style bent downwards and ± thickened towards the apex, entire; stigma terminal.
    Fruits
    Fruit a loculicidal capsule with 3 elastic valves, keeled and thickened along the suture.
    Seeds
    Seeds spheroidal-ovoid, smooth or ribbed or pitted, with abundant endosperm and a small aril.
    [FTEA]

    Violaceae, C. Grey-wilson. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1986

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs or occasionally shrubs with simple or much-branched stems
    Leaves
    Leaves spirally arranged, occasionally opposite or fasciculate, petiolate or sessile, the lamina simple, entire or toothed; stipules small and persistent, rarely foliaceous
    Flowers
    Flowers zygomorphic, solitary in the leaf-axils, rarely terminal or in clusters; pedicels articulate in the middle or the upper half, with an opposite or subopposite pair of bracteoles
    Calyx
    Sepals subequal, without a basal appendage
    Corolla
    Petals unequal, the lowermost one (anterior) usually much larger than the others and clawed, with a short basal spur
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal, free or somewhat coherent, the lower pair each with a short nectar-secreting appendage which extends into the spur; anthers with a thin dorsal connective-appendage
    Fruits
    Fruit a loculicidal capsule with 3 contractile valves
    Seeds
    Seeds pitted or striate, usually with a small aril.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Cape Provinces, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Maryland, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Somalia, South Carolina, Swaziland, Tennessee, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Yemen

    Extinct in:

    Connecticut

    Hybanthus Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Harley, R.M. [25455], Brazil K001215454
    Harley, R.M. [s.n.], Brazil K001215455
    Harley, R.M. [55724], Brazil K001215458
    Stannard, B. [s.n.], Brazil K001215450
    Stannard, B. [4641], Brazil K001215451
    Milliken, W. [361], Brazil K001215445
    Giulietti, A.M. [1686], Brazil K001215441
    Giulietti, A.M. [5461], Brazil K001215452
    Sano, P.T. [14447], Brazil K001215453
    Sano, P.T. [CFCR/14490], Brazil K001215456
    Guedes, M.L. [5509], Brazil K001215449
    Heringer, E.P. [3325], Brazil K001215457
    Eiten, G. [5952], Brazil K001215459
    Glocker [31], Brazil K001215448
    Dusén, P. [9908], Brazil K001215443
    Dusén, P. [7560], Brazil K001215446
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001215447
    Lima, J. [813], Brazil K001215444
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132288
    Glaziou [9617], Brazil K001215442

    First published in Enum. Syst. Pl.: 2 (1760)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 105, as Ionidium Vent.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Enum. Syst. Pl. Ins. Carib.: 2, 17 (1760).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Enum. Syst. Pl. Ins. Carib.: 2, 17 (1760)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0