1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Leucaena Benth.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is S. Central U.S.A. to Venezuela and Peru, Hispaniola.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs, unarmed
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate; a gland often present at junction of lowest pair of pinnae, petiole and rhachis otherwise eglandular, or rarely with glands between other pairs of pinnae; pinnae each with one to several or many pairs of leaflets
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of round heads, pedunculate, axillary, 1–3 together, often racemosely aggregated
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, sessile
    Calyx
    Calyx gamosepalous with 5 teeth
    Corolla
    Petals 5, free, pubescent to glabrous outside
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, fertile
    Anthers
    Anthers eglandular at apex (except in the extra-African L. forsteri)
    Ovary
    Ovary pubescent or sometimes glabrous
    Fruits
    Pods oblong or linear-oblong, compressed, usually thinly sub coriaceous, splitting into 2 non-recurving valves
    Seeds
    Seeds lying ± transversely in the pod, compressed, brown, glossy, unwinged, with endosperm.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs, unarmed.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2-pinnate; a gland often present at the junction of the lowest pair of pinnae, petiole and rhachis otherwise eglandular, or rarely with glands between other pairs of pinnae; pinnae each with one to several or many pairs of leaflets.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of rounded heads, pedunculate, axillary, 1-3 together, often racemosely aggregated.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, sessile.
    Calyx
    Calyx gamosepalous with 5 teeth.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, free, pubescent to glabrous outside.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, fertile.
    Anthers
    Anthers eglandular at the apex (except in the extra-African L. forsteri).
    Ovary
    Ovary pubescent or sometimes glabrous.
    Fruits
    Pods oblong or linear-oblong, compressed, usually thinly subcoriaceous, splitting into 2 non-recurving valves.
    Seeds
    Seeds lying ± transversely in the pod, compressed, brown, glossy, unwinged, with endosperm.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The tribe Mimoseae (sensu Bentham, 1875) is retained here simply as a matter of convenience. All recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that Ingeae and Acacieae are derived from within Mimoseae (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Käss & Wink, 1996; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), making it a paraphyletic group at best. The most recent studies indicate that it may not even be monophyletic with respect to the Caesalpinioideae (Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003).

    Although the outline of a new tribal classification of the mimosoids is emerging, we await better-supported phylogenies (based on more extensive data) before formalising new stable and useful groups. Some parts of the classification proposed here are better supported than others. Notably, the basal branches in Fig. 24 are poorly supported in most analyses and the relationships among the groups are likely to change as we acquire more data. As presently indicated (Luckow et al., 2003), the type genus Mimosa falls within the derived Piptadenia group which is in turn sister, and basally branching, to elements of Acacia and Ingeae (Fig. 24). A more narrowly circumscribed Mimoseae sens. strict. will thus leave the bulk of Mimoseae sens. lat. (i.e., as treated here) in need of new tribal allocation. The most conspicuous difference between the classification presented here and that of Lewis & Elias (1981) is the inclusion of tribe Parkieae within Mimoseae. The former was circumscribed based on imbricate aestivation of the calyx, and was considered the basal tribe within the Mimosoideae (Elias, 1981a). Recent phylogenetic analyses (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), indicate that the two genera in the Parkieae, Parkia and Pentaclethra, are not sister taxa (Fig. 24). Pentaclethra is nested within Mimoseae in Luckow et al. (2000), but is either sister to caesalpinioid taxa in Bruneau et al. (2001) and Herendeen et al. (2003a), or part of a basal polytomy with Mimoseae and caesalpinioid taxa (Luckow et al., 2003). Both Parkia and Pentaclethra are included in the tribe Mimoseae pending additional data and tribal recircumscription.

    Recent work (Luckow et al., submitted a) also indicates that the monospecific tribe Mimozygantheae should be subsumed in the Mimoseae near Piptadeniopsis and Prosopidastrum, currently in the Prosopis group. Otherwise, the informal groups within the Mimoseae recognised by Lewis & Elias (1981) are relatively well-supported by current phylogenies and only a few departures have been made from their system. Where relationships are either poorly supported or unresolved, the classification of Lewis & Elias (1981) is retained. The Xylia group is dismantled and the Adenanthera group recircumscribed to include Calpocalyx and Xylia . Desmanthus has been removed from the Dichrostachys group, as has Neptunia, in agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies (Harris et al., 1994; Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1995, 1997). A new group is erected to accommodate Piptadeniastrum which is well separated from Newtonia in the most recent phylogeny (Luckow et al., 2000; 2003), and another to accommodate Cylicodiscus, which is more closely related to the clade containing the Prosopis, Leucaena, Dichrostachys, and Piptadenia groups than it is to the Newtonia group. Neptunia is well supported as sister to Prosopidastrum in recent analyses (Luckow et al., 2003) and is included in the Prosopis group here. Relationships of genera in the Prosopis group are not resolved, but the group is retained here as there is no evidence that it is not monophyletic. Genera newly described since 1981 include Alantsilodendron, Calliandropsis, Kanaloa, and Lemurodendron. Alantsilodendron and Calliandropsis are placed in the Dichrostachys group, and Kanaloa in the Leucaena group based on phylogenetic analyses (Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1997; Luckow et al., 2000). Lemurodendron is tentatively included in the Newtonia group as suggested by Villiers & Guinet (1989). As treated here the Mimoseae comprises 40 genera and from (859)– 869–(879) species.

    Placed in a well supported clade sister to Schleinitzia, Kanaloa and Desmanthus (Luckow et al., 2003; Hughes et al., 2003), in the Leucaena group
    Habit
    Trees and shrubs
    Ecology
    Tropical and subtropical seasonally dry forest, semi-arid thorn scrub forest, to warm temperate open habitats
    Distribution
    Mexico (10 endemic spp. with 2 extending to S USA [Texas and New Mexico] and 4 spp. to C America); 4 endemic spp. in C America; 1 sp. in S America (N and W coastal regions S to Peru); 1 sp. pantropical
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (leucaena, koa haole, jumbie bean, guaje, ipil-ipil) is cultivated pantropically and has become naturalised and weedy in many areas; this and other species are used for livestock feed, green manure, timber (for construction, firewood and charcoal), small wood products, soil conservation (ground cover and reforestation) and human food (unripe pods and seeds)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Texas, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, India, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Leucaena Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in J. Bot. (Hooker) 4: 416 (1842)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Benth. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30: 442 (1875).
    • —F.T.A. 2 337
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Hook., Journ. Bot. 4: 416 (1842).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Hook., Journ. Bot. 4: 416 (1842)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0