1. Family: Plantaginaceae Juss.
    1. Limnophila R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Bolivia and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Habit
    Herbs, aquatic or in marshes, often aromatic on bruising, glabrous, pubescent or glandular.
    Stem
    Stems erect, simple or more usually branched, ± submerged, prostrate and rooting at nodes
    Leaves
    Leaves of two types with one or both types on the same plant: submerged leaves finely divided, verticillate; aerial leaves undivided or variously laciniate, opposite or verticillate; ± punctate
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or pedicellate, solitary in the axils or in lax or compact, terminal or axillary spikes or racemes; bracteoles 0 or 2
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 5-lobed, lobes unequal, tube with 0–5 prominent veins or striate with more than 10 prominent veins present at maturity
    Corolla
    Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, 5-lobed, bilabiate; upper (adaxial) lip outside in bud, entire or 2-lobed; lower (abaxial) lip 3-lobed
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, included, posterior pair shorter; anthers free, loculi stipitate
    Gynoecium
    Ovary glabrous; stigma bilamellate;  style filiform, deflexed at the apex
    Fruits
    Capsule ellipsoid to globose, septicidally 4-valved
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous.
    Note
    All the species represented here are heterophyllous, bearing both aerial entire leaves and, in an aquatic state, divided filamentous submerged leaves; as such, all occur in section Limnophila (see Philcox in K.B. 24: 107 (1970)).
    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Annual or perennial, aquatic or marsh herbs, frequently aromatic when bruised, glabrous, pubescent or glandular.
    Stem
    Stems erect, prostrate or creeping, rooting at nodes, simple or more usually, branched.
    Leaves
    Leaves, when submerged in truly aquatic species, laciniate, pinnatifid to capillary-multifid, glabrous; aerial leaves opposite to verticillate, sessile or petiolate, entire to serrate, laciniate or pinnately divided, where undivided, pinnately or parallel nerved; punctate.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or pedicellate, solitary-axillary or in lax or compact, terminal or axillary spikes or racemes; bracteoles 0 or 2.
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 5-lobed; lobes sub-equal or with adaxial lobe enlarged; tube terete with 0–5 prominent nerves or striate with more than 10 prominent nerves present at maturity.
    Corolla
    Corolla tubular or infundibuliform, 5-lobed, bilabiate; adaxial lip outside in bud, entire or bilobed; abaxial lip three-lobed, erect or spreading.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, included, didynamous, posterior pair shorter; anthers free, loculi stipitate.
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous.
    Stigma
    Stigma bilamellate.
    Style
    Style filiform, deflexed at apex.
    Fruits
    Capsule ellipsoid to globose, septicidally 4-valved; valves bifid.
    Seeds
    Seeds small, numerous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Northern Provinces

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Korea, Laos, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Philippines, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Florida, Louisiana, New Caledonia

    Limnophila R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Milne-Redhead, E. [2662], Zambia 35227.000
    Edwards, P.J. [4097], New Guinea 70596.000

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 442 (1810)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 316. Nom. cons.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Philcox in Kew Bull.24: 101–170 (1970).
    • Prodr.: 442 (1810) nom. cons.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • K.B. 24: 101–170 (1970), nom. conserv.
    • Prodr.: 442 (1810)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/