1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Ormocarpum P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, Nansei=shoto to Tropical Asia and SW. Pacific.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Shrubs and small trees
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical forest (also mangrove or swamp forest), woodland, wooded grassland, bushland and thicket
    Distribution
    Africa (c. 15 spp., one widespread also in Asia; c. 3 spp. in Guineo-Congolian, 4 spp. in Zambezian-Sudanian, c. 3 spp. in Somalia-Masai and c. 5 spp. in Swahelian regions), Madagascar (2 endemic spp.) and Asia (1 sp. from the Indian subcontinent to the Pacific Islands (Fiji) and N Australia)
    Note
    Ormocarpum was placed by Rudd (1981) in tribe Aeschynomeneae, subtribe Ormocarpinae; Lavin et al. (2000; 2001a), based on DNA sequence analyses, resolve Ormocarpum as sister to Ormocarpopsis in a transatlantic clade (Fig. 40); see notes under Pictetia

    The present circumscription of Dalbergieae sens. lat. contains radical changes to Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233–242). In the first instance it takes a traditional view of the tribe by including genera such as Vatairea and Vataireopsis (now in the Vataireoid clade, see Figs. 1& 40) and Andira and Hymenolobium, which in Wojciechowski et al. (2004) are sister to the combined Dalbergioid clade of Lavin et al. (2001a), plus Amorpheae. The bulk of the treatment, however, recognises the cryptic Dalbergioid clade (Lavin et al., 2001a) as comprising tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat., diagnosed by the synapomorphy of aeschynomenoid root nodules. This clade includes all the genera placed in the Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233– 242), the Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) and the Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g: 355–356), plus subtribe Bryinae of the Desmodieae sensu Ohashi et al. (1981) as well as the genus Diphysa (tribe Robinieae sensu Polhill & Sousa (1981)).The placements of all members of the Dalbergioid clade within the classification presented here and in those of Polhill (1981d: 233–242; 1981g: 355–356), Polhill & Sousa (1981), Ohashi et al. (1981) and Rudd (1981) are listed in Fig. 40.

    Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d) contained 19 genera defined by woody habit, supposedly plesiomorphic flowers, pods with a specialised seed chamber and seeds that accumulated alkaloids. Polhill (1981d) noted that there seemed to be two centres within the Dalbergieae: one around Andira with Hymenolobium, Vatairea, Vataireopsis, Dalbergia, and Machaerium, and one around Pterocarpus. He also highlighted evidence from wood anatomy (Baretta-Kuipers, 1981) which showed that Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis have coarser wood structures more typical of members of the Sophoreae than the remaining members of the Dalbergieae. The study of fruit and seedling morphology by Lima (1990) further supported these two centres within the Dalbergieae: one including Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis, and the second the remaining genera. Most recently several molecular and morphological studies (e.g., Lavin et al., 2001a; Pennington et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004) confirm that these four genera do not belong in the Dalbergioid clade. Since there is, however, still much work to be done to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of these four genera, they have been kept in tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat. in this treatment to avoid tentative placements, which might be treated by users as formal.

    The tribe Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) contained 25 genera characterised by lomentaceous pods, although some members lack loments (e.g., Arachis, Ormocarpopsis, Diphysa spp., Ormocarpum spp., and Pictetia spp.). None of the Aeschynomeneae had previously been considered closely related to the Dalbergieae, but the work of Lavin et al. (2001a) has resolved all the ‘aeschynomenoid genera’ within the Dalbergioid clade.

    The taxonomic history of the monogeneric tribe Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g) is very different from that of the Dalbergieae. The Adesmieae combines the presumed plesiomorphic trait of free stamen filaments, with presence of lomentaceous pods that are supposedly derived. This combination of features suggested a taxonomically isolated position far removed from the Dalbergieae. The analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) based on molecular sequence and morphological data, however, support Adesmia (nested together with five genera of Rudd’s Aeschynomeneae) being sister to the Pterocarpus and Dalbergia clades. The neotropical genera Brya and Cranocarpus were placed together in a new subtribe Bryinae of Desmodieae in the classification of Ohashi et al. (1981). The features common to these genera are periporate pollen and glochidiate hairs or glandular trichomes. In the molecular studies of Doyle et al. (1995) and Bailey et al. (1997), Brya and Cranocarpus did not lack the intron for the chloroplast gene rpl2 nor for the open reading frame ORF184, which are characteristic of the other desmodioid genera studied. Bailey et al. (1997), therefore, suggested that Brya and Cranocarpus should be removed from the Desmodieae. Their findings were strongly corroborated by the three gene analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) which place the two genera in the Pterocarpus clade (Fig. 40).

    One further transfer has been made in the Dalbergioid clade since Rudd (1981) and Polhill & Sousa (1981). Lavin (1987) transferred Diphysa from the Robinieae to tribe Aeschynomeneae based on the absence of canavanine in the seeds, a feature consistently present in the Robinieae (Lavin, 1986). Lavin (1987) also listed 14 morphological characters that placed Diphysa with the Aeschynomeneae rather than the Robinieae. In the phylogenetic analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a), Diphysa is resolved in the Dalbergioid clade nested within the ‘transatlantic clade’ (Fig. 40), first identified by Lavin et al. (2000).

    Finally, since 1981 four new genera have been published: the Brazilian monotypic Grazielodendron (Lima, 1983b), the possibly extinct Madagascan endemic Peltiera (Labat & Du Puy, 1997), Zygocarpum, the Horn of Africa – Arabian segregate of Ormocarpum (Thulin & Lavin, 2001) and Maraniona from northern Peru (Hughes et al., 2004). Three genera have also been placed in synonymy since 1981: the Caribbean genus Belairia which is a synonym of Pictetia (Beyra-Matos & Lavin, 1999), and the genera Pachecoa and Arthrocarpum which Thulin (1999) synonymised under Chapmannia. In this treatment 49 genera and (1319) –1325–(1331) species are recognised in Dalbergieae sens. lat. (including 4 basally branching dalbergioid genera comprising c. 58 species, and (1261)–1267– (1273) species in the 45 genera of the Dalbergioid clade [Lavin et al., 2001a]).The following informal groupings of genera are based on the work of Lavin et al. (2001a): Adesmia clade: 6 genera; c. 360 species; neotropical except Zornia, which is pantropical. Pterocarpus clade: 22 genera; c. 200 species centred in the Neotropics, Pterocarpus and Stylosanthes are pantropical, Inocarpus Asian, and Chapmannia transatlantic.Dalbergia clade: 17 genera; c. 706 species which are pantropical, but centred in Africa; Weberbauerella, Soemmeringia, Pictetia and Diphysa are neotropical, Machaerium transatlantic, Dalbergia and Aeschynomene are pantropical, and Geissaspis Asian. Isolated genera: 4 genera; 58 species, neotropical except Andira, which has one amphiatlantic species.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees usually with two kinds of hair, (a) rather weak, caducous, white, normal hairs, (b) stiffer, darker, swollen-based hairs, which often exude a yellow more or less aromatic viscid fluid when young and whose enlarged bases may persist as small conical tubercles when old
    Leaves
    Leaves often fasciculate on short shoots, imparipinnate (or, outside Flora area, 1-foliolate), without stipels; stipules striate, persistent; leaflets usually ± alternate, entire or minutely notched at the margins, nearly always glabrous and minutely black-dotted above, paler beneath
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary racemes (or rarely panicles) or solitary, the pedicel usually longer than the bract and the calyx; bracts persistent, sometimes 3-partite; bracteoles also persistent, opposite, situated at or rather below the base of the receptacle
    Hypanthium
    Receptacle-cup (hypanthium) shallow, oval, longer (in the dorsiventral plane) than it is broad or deep, the ovary-base and pedicel-insertion towards its lower end
    Calyx
    Calyx usually strongly veined, the lobes usually longer than the tube, the lower lobe longest, the 2 upper lobes united for about half their length and connivent at the tip
    Corolla
    Corolla 9–26 mm. long, glabrous or the 3 upper petals somewhat pubescent toward the tip and at the margin, often strongly veined; blade of standard curved back at an angle to the claw with 2 ridges, knobs or scales at the base; blades of wings transversely puckered between the veins in the upper part near the base; claws of the keel longer than those of the wings; blades of keel-petals lightly attached along their lower margin
    Stamens
    Stamens free from the petals, usually (5) + (5), i.e. divided dorsally and ventrally into 2 groups of 5, less often (10), i.e. united to form a sheath slit above, occasionally 1 + (9), i.e. the vexillary stamen free, the remainder forming an open sheath or 1 + (4) + (5) where this sheath is split on the lower side as well; staminal arrangement often inconstant within a single species or even a single specimen; anthers all alike or less often the 5 on longer filaments rather longer than the rest
    Disc
    Intrastaminal disc cylindrical, forming a collar round the stipe of the ovary or, less often, flat
    Pistil
    Ovary ± stipitate, 3–9-ovulate, often becoming arcuate, i.e. curved with the upper margin convex; style curved upwards from near its centre, thin, cylindrical, glabrous or sparsely hispid near the base; stigma terminal, minute
    Fruits
    Pod breaking transversely into 1–6 1-seeded indehiscent segments
    Seeds
    Seed flattened, asymmetrically elliptic, without a prominent aril; hilum near one end, ± 0.5 mm. long, elliptic.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:6. 2000

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees with usually two kinds of indumentum, weak white deciduous hairs and stiffer tubercular-based hairs which are often aromatic and glandular and frequently persist as conical tuberculars on the older stems.
    Leaves
    Leaves often fasciculate on short shoots, 1-foliolate (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area) or more usually imparipinnate; stipules striate, persistent; stipels absent; leaflets usually ± alternate, entire or minutely notched, mostly glabrous and with minute black dots above.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary racemes or solitary, rarely in panicles; bracts persistent, sometimes tripartite; bracteoles persistent, opposite, at the base or just below the base of the receptacle (hypanthium).
    Calyx
    Calyx usually strongly veined; lobes mostly longer than the tube, the lowest the longest, the two upper united for half their length and connivent at the tips.
    Corolla
    Corolla glabrous or wings and standard pubescent at their apices and margins, often strongly veined; blade of standard forming an angle with the claw and bearing two variable ridges or appendages at the base.
    Stamens
    Staminal arrangement various, monadelphous or variously divided, 5 + 5, 1 + 9 or 1 + 4 + 5, sometimes varying in a single specimen; anthers uniform, or less often alternate anthers slightly longer.
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, 3–9-ovulate, often curving; style curved near its centre with the upper side concave, thin, cylindric, glabrous or sparsely hispid near the base; stigma terminal, minute.
    Fruits
    Pod breaking transversely into 1–6 indehiscent articles.
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened, asymmetrically ellipsoid; hilum towards one end, round or elliptic, c. 0.5 mm long, devoid of any appendages.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used for timber, the whippy stems are used for hut construction and frames; as medicine, shade trees for coffee and as a fish poison

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Maluku, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    China Southeast, Hainan, Lesser Sunda Is., Queensland, Taiwan

    Ormocarpum P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, D.W. [2204], Cameroon K000086952

    First published in Fl. Oware 1: 95 (1806)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • — F.T.A. 2: 142.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Kirkia 9: 361 (1974).
    • Gillett in Kew Bull. 20: 323 (1966).
    • Fl. Owar. & Ben. 1: 96 (1806) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gillett in K.B. 20: 323 (1966), nom. conserv.
    • Fl. Owar. 1: 96 (1806)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0