1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Psophocarpus Neck. ex DC.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to New Guinea and Africa..

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs, mostly climbing or prostrate, less often erect
    Leaves
    Leaves 1-foliolate or pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules prolonged below the point of insertion; stipels present
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, falsely racemose or flowers solitary or fasciculate; rhachis swollen at the point of insertion of the pedicels
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed; upper pair of lobes forming an entire or bifid lip
    Corolla
    Corolla blue or purplish; standard broad, auriculate and appendaged, glabrous; keel bent at a right-angle
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free or somewhat connate in the middle; anthers 5 dorsifixed alternating with 5 basifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary 3–8-ovuled, winged; style thickened above the ovary, bent, flattened towards the apex, glabrous, bearded longitudinally or with a ring of hairs below the stigma, that part of the style situated above this row of hairs slightly bent; stigma terminal or internal, penicillate
    Fruits
    Pods oblong, ± distinctly 4-winged along the angles, dehiscent, ± septate between the seeds
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid or oblong-ellipsoid, with or without an aril.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    Psophocarpus is basally branching in subtribe Phaseolinae (Bruneau et al., 1995), and placed further down the tree in a clade with Erythrina, sister to the combined Phaseolinae, Glycininae and Psoraleeae (Doyle et al., 2000)
    Habit
    Climbing herbs or subshrubs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical forest and forest margins, secondary vegetation, thicket, swamp, moist wooded grassland and grassland
    Distribution
    Africa and Madagascar, one widespread cultivated sp. (unknown in the wild), possibly Asian in origin; a further sp. introduced in the Mascarenes, Comoro Islands, Caribbean and S America
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs, prostrate or climbing, rarely erect.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules appendaged below the point of insertion; stipels present.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an axillary pseudoraceme, subumbel or umbel; bracts and bracteoles present.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, the upper pair of lobes fused for all or part of their length; lower lobes various.
    Corolla
    Corolla mostly blue or mauve, rarely yellow; standard auriculate, appendaged.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, 9 with filaments fused, 1 free to the base or connate in the middle.
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate; ovules 3–many; style thickened above the ovary, bent, flattened towards the apex, bearded longitudinally or with a ring of hairs below the stigma; stigma terminal or subterminal, penicillate or not.
    Fruits
    Fruit narrowly cylindrical, 4-winged, septate, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, oblong or square, brown to black or deep purple, with or without an aril.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as human food; P. tetragonolobus (L.) DC. (winged bean or Goa bean) is very widely cultivated as a protein-rich vegetable, the young shoots, young pods, flowers, seeds and tuberous roots are all edible; other species used for green manure, ground cover and fodder

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, New Guinea, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., East Himalaya, Egypt, Florida, Hainan, India, Jamaica, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Psophocarpus Neck. ex DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Prodr. 2: 403 (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 208.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt & Halliday in Kew Bull. 33: 191–227 (1978).
    • Prodr. 2: 403 (1825) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Prodr. 2: 403 (1825), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0