1. Family: Menispermaceae Juss.
    1. Tinospora Miers

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Australasia and Asia-Temperate..

    [FZ]

    Menispermaceae, G. Troupin. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Herbaceous twiners or woody lianes or sometimes small, rambling shrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, entire; nerves palmate, rarely pinnate.
    Inflorescences
    Male inflorescences of false racemes, which are either simple or compound (i.e. panicles) of 2–4-flowered cymules. Female inflorescences of false racemes of solitary flowers.
    Flowers
    Female flowers with sepals and petals similar to those of the male; carpels 3, obliquely ovoid. Male flowers with 6 sepals, the 3 inner much larger than the outer, hyaline or membranous; petals 6, rarely 3, fleshy, with inrolled margins, the inner smaller than the outer; stamens 3–6, quite free, or with their filaments connate either at the base, half-way up, or for their entire length; anther-thecae with longitudinal dehiscence.
    Fruits
    Drupelets 3 or fewer; exocarp pulpy; endocarp more or less verrucose outside, with a condyle on its inner side which makes a large sub-globular cavity.
    Seeds
    Seeds with fleshy ruminate endosperm.
    [FTEA]

    Menispermaceae, G. Troupin. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

    Habit
    Herbaceous or woody lianes, sometimes small, rambling shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, entire; nerves palmate, rarely pinnate
    Male
    Male flowers with 6 sepals, the 3 inner much larger than the outer, hyaline or membranous; petals 6, rarely 3, fleshy, with inrolled margins, the inner smaller than the outer; stamens 3–6, quite free, or with their filaments connate either at base, half-way up or for their entire length; antherthecae with longitudinal dehiscence Male inflorescences of false racemes, which are either simple or compound (i.e. panicles), of 2–4-flowered cymules
    Inflorescences
    Female inflorescences of false racemes of solitary flowers Male inflorescences of false racemes, which are either simple or compound (i.e. panicles), of 2–4-flowered cymules
    Flowers
    Female flowers with sepals and petals similar to those of the ♂; carpels 3, obliquely ovoid Male flowers with 6 sepals, the 3 inner much larger than the outer, hyaline or membranous; petals 6, rarely 3, fleshy, with inrolled margins, the inner smaller than the outer; stamens 3–6, quite free, or with their filaments connate either at base, half-way up or for their entire length; antherthecae with longitudinal dehiscence
    Female
    Female flowers with sepals and petals similar to those of the ♂; carpels 3, obliquely ovoid Female inflorescences of false racemes of solitary flowers
    Fruits
    Drupes 3 or fewer; exocarp pulpy; endocarp ± verrucose outside, with a condyle on its inner side which makes a large subglobular cavity
    Seeds
    Seeds with fleshy ruminate endosperm.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Ethiopia, Gabon, Hainan, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Marianas, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Christmas I., Leeward Is.

    Tinospora Miers appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 7: 38 (1851)

    Accepted by

    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 43.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 2, 7: 35, 38 (1851).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 7: 35 (1851), sensu ampl.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0