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This genus is accepted, and its native range is St. Helena, Tropical & S. Africa, Medit to Temp. Asia.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-locular, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous in each locule on a placenta adnate to the dissepiment.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style as long as or slightly longer than the filaments, subulate, straight.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma capitate, sometimes shortly and widely 2-lobed at the tip, included or scarcely exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit baccaceous, ± sessile, globose, juicy, 2-locular Fruit baccaceous, ± sessile, globose, juicy, 2-locular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, compressed, sub-orbicular or ± reniform; testa somewhat leathery, reticulate-foveate; embryo strongly curved, flattened, in the fleshy and scanty endosperm; radicle long, ± terete; cotyledons slender, semi-terete or linear in outline. Seeds numerous, compressed, sub-orbicular or ± reniform; testa somewhat leathery, reticulate-foveate; embryo strongly curved, flattened, in the fleshy and scanty endosperm; radicle long, ± terete; cotyledons slender, semi-terete or linear in outline.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, subentire to crenulate, slightly glandular, sometimes none. Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, subentire to crenulate, slightly glandular, sometimes none
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2-locular, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous in each locule on a placenta adnate to the dissepiment; style as long as or slightly longer than the filaments, subulate, straight; stigma capitate, sometimes shortly and widely 2-lobed at the tip, included or scarcely exserted.
Note
A genus allied to Physalis, with c. 10 species widely distributed in warm and temperate regions of the Old World extending from Mediterranean Europe southwards to the Cape of South Africa, and eastwards from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands through the Mediterranean region and Arabia to India and Sri Lanka. Hunziker, loc. cit. (2001), includes a further 9 species formerly in Physaliastrum Makino from more humid areas in eastern Asia.
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or perennial herbs, ± clothed with branched hairs to subglabrous. Shrubs or perennial herbs, ± clothed with branched hairs to subglabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary, alternate, the upper ones usually in pairs (or whorls of 3), one larger than the others, appearing opposite (or verticillate), petiolate, entire to lobed. Leaves solitary, alternate, the upper ones usually in pairs (or whorls of 3), one larger than the others, appearing opposite (or verticillate), petiolate, entire to lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of few–several flowers in axillary fascicles, rarely reduced to one flower; pedicels short or obsolete, often drooping in fruit. Inflorescences of few–several flowers in axillary fascicles, rarely reduced to one flower; pedicels short or obsolete, often drooping in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual or elsewhere rarely unisexual in dioecious plants. Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual or elsewhere rarely unisexual in dioecious plants
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx almost as long as the corolla tube, campanulate, 5(7)-fid; lobes as long as or shorter than the tube, subulate upwards, not conniving at the apex, with valvate aestivation; in fruit ± enlarged and bladdery-inflated simulating Physalis, closely or loosely concealing it, reticulate, papyraceous, scarious or elsewhere coriaceous. Calyx almost as long as the corolla tube, campanulate, 5(7)-fid; lobes as long as or shorter than the tube, subulate upwards, not conniving at the apex, with valvate aestivation; in fruit ± enlarged and bladdery-inflated simulating Physalis, closely or loosely concealing it, reticulate, papyraceous, scarious or elsewhere coriaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white to yellow or ± greenish, campanulate, often narrowly so, sometimes infundibular or sub-rotate, hairy; tube hairy inside; limb broad, (3)5(7)-fid or -lobed, somewhat reflexed, with valvate aestivation. Corolla white to yellow or ± greenish, campanulate, often narrowly so, sometimes infundibular or sub-rotate, hairy; tube hairy inside; limb broad, (3)5(7)-fid or -lobed, somewhat reflexed, with valvate aestivation
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5(7), ± equal, inserted near the base of the corolla tube, included or scarcely exserted; filaments subulate often from a flat-expanded base, glabrous or minutely glandular-scaly at the base and with fringes on the back; anthers ± oblong in outline, straight, as long as or shorter than the filaments, free or sometimes conniving, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Stamens 5(7), ± equal, inserted near the base of the corolla tube, included or scarcely exserted; filaments subulate often from a flat-expanded base, glabrous or minutely glandular-scaly at the base and with fringes on the back; anthers ± oblong in outline, straight, as long as or shorter than the filaments, free or sometimes conniving, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Genus of about 11 species with one centre of distribution in the Canary Islands, Spain and north-western Africa, and another in the Horn of Africa Region and eastwards to India. One species, W. somnifera, is widespread in the Old World.
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs, subshrubs or woody-based herbs, with indumentum of branched hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or in unequal pairs, simple, entire or almost so
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary or clustered in leaf axils, bisexual or sometimes unisexual (not in Somalia)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, lobed, enlarged in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulate, lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted near base of corolla-tube, included or slightly exserted; anthers dehiscing longitudinally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk ring-like, sometimes inconspicuous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled, with numerous ovules; style slender, stigma capitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a globose berry, usually surrounded by the enlarged calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flattened, reticulate to almost smooth.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial shrubs and herbs; hairs eglandular, usually branched, occasionally simple
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or in unequal pairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers occasionally solitary, usually in few- to many-flowered fascicles, axillary, usually hermaphrodite, occasionally dioecious; pedicels short to almost absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx usually actinomorphic, campanulate to urceolate-campanulate, with 5–6 lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla usually actinomorphic, broadly campanulate, with 5–6 often recurved lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens included or slightly exserted; filaments fused to lower part of corolla tube where enlarged and flattened, usually glabrous, slender where free; anthers equal, oblong, bilobed, basifixed by filaments inserted between thecae, sometimes convergent around stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary superior, glabrous, bilocular, ovules numerous; disc annular, smooth, often crenulate, occasionally absent; style usually glabrous; stigma discoidcapitate, bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a berry, mature pericarp thin and translucent, enclosed by enlarged and inflated accrescent chartaceous urceolate calyx, with the mouth wide open, narrow or almost completely closed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, compressed, with or without sclerotic granules.
Note
Hepper (1991) considered Withania to be composed of ten species. Hunziker (cf. 2001) recently enlarged this genus by adding nine mesophytes formerly included in the genera Mellissia Hook. and Physaliastrum Makino, thereby extending the geographical range of this genus from the Canary Islands in the west, through Asia to China and Japan in the east. Symon (1991) also emphasised the closeness of Mellissia (a critically endangered endemic of St Helena) to Withania, but retained them as distinct genera. The genus Withania is close to Physalis, with which it is often confused, and like the latter also belongs to the subfamily Solanoideae. Withania is one of the two Solanaceous genera which D’Arcy (in Solanaceae 3: 105, 1991) considered to be truly Old World and which Symon (in Solanaceae 3: 146, 1991) considered to be a distinctive African Gondwanan element.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Greece, Gulf States, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Primorye, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Mauritius, New South Wales, Réunion, South Australia

Withania Pauquy appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Belladone: 14 (1825)

Accepted by

  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 248. Nom. cons.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 264 (2001).
  • Hawkes, Lester, Nee & Estrada (eds.), Solanaceae III: 211–229 (1991).
  • Hepper in Hawkes, Lester, Nee & Estrada (eds.), Solanaceae III: 211–229 (1991).
  • Belladone: 14 (1825), nom. conserv.
  • Withania Pauquy, Belladone: 14 (1825) , nom. conserv.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Gen. Solanaceae: 264–270 (2001);
  • Solanaceae III: 211–227 (1991)
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 453 (1852);
  • Diss. Belladone: 14 (1825), nom. conserv.;

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0