1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Antidesma L.
      1. Antidesma venosum E.Mey. ex Tul.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, S. China to Indo-China.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A spreading, sometimes scrambling, deciduous shrub or small tree commonly up to 8 m tall, branched from the base or with a clear bole to up to 4.5 m; branches drooping; crown often dense; bark smooth, furrowed or scaly, light yellowish-brown to dark grey.
    Twigs
    Twigs grey-brown, lenticellate.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and buds sparingly to densely fulvous- or ferrugineous-tomentose, or pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves stratified.
    Petiole
    Petioles 0.2–1 cm long, adaxially canaliculate, pubescent at least in the groove.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 2–12(20) × 1–6(7) cm, elliptic-obovate to oblong-oblanceolate, rounded or obtuse at the apex, less often shortly acuminate, rounded or cuneate, rarely shallowly cordulate at the base, thickly chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, pubescent along the midrib but otherwise glabrous or almost so on upper surface, sparingly pubescent to densely fulvous- or ferrugineous-tomentose beneath, dark green and glossy above, paler and duller beneath; lateral nerves in 4–8(9) pairs, the lower camptodromous, the upper brochidodromous, somewhat impressed above, prominent beneath, reticulation lax.
    Stipules
    Stipules 2–8(15) mm, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute, evenly to densely pubescent or tomentose, subpersistent.
    Male
    Male flowers: calyx (3)4(5)-lobed, the lobes 0.5–1 mm long, unequal, subacute or obtuse, pubescent without, ciliate, yellowish-green; disk variable, continuous or fragmented, thick, partially or completely surrounding the (3)4(5) stamens; filaments 2.5 mm long, white, anthers 0.5 mm long, often reddish; pistillode minute, usually slender, sparingly pubescent. Male inflorescences terminal or subterminal on short lateral shoots, 4–10(13) cm long, spicate, usually with 1–2 lateral spikes at the base; bracts minute.
    Inflorescences
    Female inflorescences 1.5–9(12) cm long, compound-spicate with 1–4 lateral spikes in the lower half, often galled and then irregularly densely paniculate, especially in the upper half, otherwise as in the male. Male inflorescences terminal or subterminal on short lateral shoots, 4–10(13) cm long, spicate, usually with 1–2 lateral spikes at the base; bracts minute.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, extending to 2 mm in fruit; calyx 1 mm long, cupular, shallowly 3–4-lobed, otherwise ± as in the male; disk c. 1 mm in diameter, shallowly cupular, crenellate, ovary 1 × 0.75 mm, compressed-ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous; styles 2–4, ± terminal, 0.75 mm long, bifid, strongly recurved, glabrous, whitish. Male flowers: calyx (3)4(5)-lobed, the lobes 0.5–1 mm long, unequal, subacute or obtuse, pubescent without, ciliate, yellowish-green; disk variable, continuous or fragmented, thick, partially or completely surrounding the (3)4(5) stamens; filaments 2.5 mm long, white, anthers 0.5 mm long, often reddish; pistillode minute, usually slender, sparingly pubescent.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, extending to 2 mm in fruit; calyx 1 mm long, cupular, shallowly 3–4-lobed, otherwise ± as in the male; disk c. 1 mm in diameter, shallowly cupular, crenellate, ovary 1 × 0.75 mm, compressed-ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous; styles 2–4, ± terminal, 0.75 mm long, bifid, strongly recurved, glabrous, whitish. Female inflorescences 1.5–9(12) cm long, compound-spicate with 1–4 lateral spikes in the lower half, often galled and then irregularly densely paniculate, especially in the upper half, otherwise as in the male.
    Fruits
    Fruits 5–7(8) × 4–5(6) mm when dried, 6–8(9) × 5–6(7) mm when fresh, ellipsoid-suborbicular, slightly asymmetrical, strongly laterally compressed, irregularly and coarsely reticulate-rugulose when dried, green at first, later becoming whitish, red, purple or black when ripe.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid.
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A shrub or small tree
    Ecology
    Mostly in savannah
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow
    Fruits
    Ripe fruits black, edible
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence often attacked by a gall insect and then more or less paniculate.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A spreading shrub or small evergreen tree, sometimes straggling, 1–9(–15) m. tall, many- or single-stemmed and sometimes with drooping branches; bark fibrous, fairly smooth to lightly fissured, flaking or roughened, grey-brown; wood hard, white or pale brown.
    Twigs
    Twigs sparingly lenticellate; buds ferruginous-tomentose; young shoots sparingly pubescent to densely fulvous- or ferruginous-tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves:petioles 3–7(–10) mm. long, evenly to densely pubescent or tomentose; blades elliptic-obovate to oblong-oblanceolate, (1.5–)3–10(–17) cm. long, (1–)2–5(–9) cm. wide, rounded, obtuse, subacute or shortly obtusely acuminate at apex, rounded or rounded-cuneate or sometimes cuneate at base, chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, lateral nerves 6–8(–9) pairs, camptodromous to weakly brochidodromous, impressed above, prominent beneath, evenly pubescent along the midrib but otherwise glabrous or sparingly pubescent and glabrescent above, sparingly pubescent to densely fulvous- or ferruginous-tomentose beneath, light to dark green and shiny above, paler and dull beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules simple, narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 4–8 mm. long, rarely longer, entire, evenly to densely pubescent or tomentose.
    Inflorescences
    Male inflorescences pendent, compoundly spicate, usually with 1–2 lateral spikes at the base, (4–)7–10(–12) cm. long, peduncles and axis sparingly to densely pubescent or tomentose; bracts ovate, 0.5 mm. long, evenly pubescent. Female inflorescences usually erect or held laterally, sometimes pendent, compoundly spicate, usually with 1–4 lateral spikes in the lower part, but often galled due to the action of a mite and then densely and irregularly paniculate, especially in the upper half, otherwise ± as ♂.
    Male
    Male inflorescences pendent, compoundly spicate, usually with 1–2 lateral spikes at the base, (4–)7–10(–12) cm. long, peduncles and axis sparingly to densely pubescent or tomentose; bracts ovate, 0.5 mm. long, evenly pubescent. Male flowers:calyx 0.5–1 mm. long, sparingly to evenly pubescent, (3–)4(–5)-lobed, the lobes somewhat unequal, subacute or obtuse, ciliate-pubescent, greenish white or yellowish, sometimes tinged reddish or brownish; disc (3–)4(–5)-lobed, the lobes enveloping the filaments, subglabrous; stamens (3–)4(–5), filaments 2 mm. long, anthers 0.5 mm. long, yellow; pistillode hemispherical-cylindric, 0.5 mm. high, sparingly pubescent.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels 0.5–0.8 mm. long, sparingly pubescent; calyx 1 mm. long, suburceolate, otherwise ± as ♂; disc shallowly cupular; ovary somewhat asymmetrically lenticular, 2 mm. long, smooth, glabrous; styles terminal, 2, bifid, 0.75 mm. long, borne on a tumid stylopodium. Male flowers:calyx 0.5–1 mm. long, sparingly to evenly pubescent, (3–)4(–5)-lobed, the lobes somewhat unequal, subacute or obtuse, ciliate-pubescent, greenish white or yellowish, sometimes tinged reddish or brownish; disc (3–)4(–5)-lobed, the lobes enveloping the filaments, subglabrous; stamens (3–)4(–5), filaments 2 mm. long, anthers 0.5 mm. long, yellow; pistillode hemispherical-cylindric, 0.5 mm. high, sparingly pubescent.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 0.5–0.8 mm. long, sparingly pubescent; calyx 1 mm. long, suburceolate, otherwise ± as ♂; disc shallowly cupular; ovary somewhat asymmetrically lenticular, 2 mm. long, smooth, glabrous; styles terminal, 2, bifid, 0.75 mm. long, borne on a tumid stylopodium. Female inflorescences usually erect or held laterally, sometimes pendent, compoundly spicate, usually with 1–4 lateral spikes in the lower part, but often galled due to the action of a mite and then densely and irregularly paniculate, especially in the upper half, otherwise ± as ♂.
    Infructescences
    Infructescences not elongated.
    Fruits
    Fruits 5–7(–8) mm. long (dry), irregularly and coarsely reticulate-rugose when dried, glabrous, dull greenish yellow or whitish at first, later becoming pinkish, reddish, purplish, brownish or almost black when ripe.
    Habitat
    Forest edges or riverine, dry evergreen forest and associated bushland, deciduous woodland and wooded grassland, sometimes on termite mounds or in thickets; 0–1830 m.
    Distribution
    from the Gambia eastwards to Ethiopia and south to Namibia and South Africa (Natal, Transkei)? Madagascar K4 K5 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Antidesma venosum E.Mey. ex Tul. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13418], Cameroon K000541140
    May 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [9532], Cameroon K000026652
    Oct 1, 1987 Burton [s.n.], Congo, DRC K000406413
    Oct 1, 1987 Kotschy [397], Sudan K000406431 isotype
    Oct 1, 1987 Kotschy [397], Sudan K000406430 isotype
    Oct 1, 1987 Drège [s.n.], South Africa K000406419 isosyntype
    Oct 1, 1987 Krauss, C.F.F. von [138], KwaZulu-Natal K000406412 isosyntype
    Oct 1, 1987 Krauss, C.F.F. von [138], KwaZulu-Natal K000406414 isosyntype
    Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, D.W. [5247], Cameroon K000180658
    Nov 1, 1973 Mbenkum, T. [406], Cameroon K000180906
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10949], Tanzania 23376.000
    Maitland, T.D. [0s.n113], Cameroon K000180907
    Erens, J. [411], Botswana K000511161
    Starin, E.D. [14] 40489.000
    Green [769], South Africa K000406418
    Robertson [97], Botswana K000511162
    Maunder, M. [141], Somalia 54009.000
    Drège [s.n.], South Africa K000406416 Unknown type material
    Gibbs Russell, G.E. [2385], Botswana K000511163
    Son, G. van [28832], Botswana K000511160
    Plant, R.W. [25], KwaZulu-Natal K000406415 Unknown type material
    Plant, R.W. [25], KwaZulu-Natal K000406417
    Smith, P.A. [298], Botswana K000511165
    Laferrere, M. [117], Mali K000385784
    Brunt, M.A. [410], Cameroon K000180659
    Brunt, M.A. [150], Cameroon K000180661
    Brunt, M.A. [1100], Cameroon K000180662
    Brunt, M.A. [1270], Cameroon K000180664
    Nditapah, J.K. [1204], Cameroon K000180665

    First published in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 15: 232 (1851)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Breteler, F.J. (2012). Flore du Gabon 43: 1-107. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 182, t. 33, 4–5, partly.
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 2: 60
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 15: 139, partly
    • Chev. Bot. 565
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 646, partly
    • in Ann. Sci. Nat., sér. 3, 15: 232 (1851)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 193 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 185 (1961).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 375 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 55 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 200 (1949).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 48 (1936).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147 (15): 139 (1922).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 19 (1921).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 646 (1912).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 237 (1895).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 260 (1866).
    • Tul. in Ann. Sci. Nat., sér. 3, 15: 232 (1851).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0