1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Antidesma L.
      1. Antidesma vogelianum Müll.Arg.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A spreading, sometimes scrambling, evergreen shrub or tree up to 15 m tall, often with only a few long lax drooping branches; bole up to 50 cm in diameter, aerial roots sometimes formed.
    Bark
    Bark smooth, longitudinally furrowed, or reticulate and flaking, pale grey or brownish.
    Wood
    Wood hard, yellowish-white.
    Twigs
    Twigs sparingly lenticellate.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and buds densely ferrugineous-pubescent at first, soon glabrescent.
    Petiole
    Petioles 2–8(15) mm long, adaxially canaliculate.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 3–24 × 1.5–9 cm, elliptic to elliptic-oblanceolate, usually acutely acuminate, often long-acuminate and mucronate at the apex, cuneate-rounded and sometimes slightly asymmetric at the base, coriaceous, glabrous or sometimes the midrib and main nerves pubescent above and beneath, coppery-red when young, becoming deep glossy green above and paler or ferrugineous-tinged with darker green veins beneath; lateral nerves in 5–11 pairs, brochidodromous, not prominent above, somewhat prominent beneath, reticulation lax by reflected light, dense by transmitted light.
    Stipules
    Stipules 0.4–1.5(3.5) cm × 1–2(4) mm, linear to narrowly elliptic, acute, pubescent, foliaceous on suckers, deciduous or subpersistent.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels very short or absent; calyx 3–4-lobed, the lobes 0.5 mm long, subequal, obtuse, glabrous without, pubescent within, ciliate, pale green; disk continuous, thick, enfolding the 3 stamens; filaments 2–2.5 mm long, anthers 0.3 × 0.5 mm, crimson to dark brown; pistillode 1 mm tall, cylindric, scarcely 2–3-lobed at the apex, glabrous. Male inflorescences 3–13 cm long, terminal or subterminal usually on lateral shoots, spicate, often with a lateral basal spike, pendulous; bracts minute, but up to 5 mm long on galled inflorescences.
    Inflorescences
    Female inflorescences 1–8 cm long, extending to up to 17 cm long (much longer in W Africa and Zaire) in fruit, pendulous, unbranched, not galled, otherwise as in male. Male inflorescences 3–13 cm long, terminal or subterminal usually on lateral shoots, spicate, often with a lateral basal spike, pendulous; bracts minute, but up to 5 mm long on galled inflorescences.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, extending to up to 4 mm long in fruit; calyx 1 × 1 mm, squarely cupular, truncate or very shallowly and broadly 3(4–5)-lobed to one-third, otherwise ± as in the male; disk c. 1 mm in diameter, annular, entire or crenellate; ovary 2 × 1 mm, fusiform-ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous, brown; styles 3–4, usually terminal, 1 mm long, strongly recurved, usually glabrous. Male flowers: pedicels very short or absent; calyx 3–4-lobed, the lobes 0.5 mm long, subequal, obtuse, glabrous without, pubescent within, ciliate, pale green; disk continuous, thick, enfolding the 3 stamens; filaments 2–2.5 mm long, anthers 0.3 × 0.5 mm, crimson to dark brown; pistillode 1 mm tall, cylindric, scarcely 2–3-lobed at the apex, glabrous.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, extending to up to 4 mm long in fruit; calyx 1 × 1 mm, squarely cupular, truncate or very shallowly and broadly 3(4–5)-lobed to one-third, otherwise ± as in the male; disk c. 1 mm in diameter, annular, entire or crenellate; ovary 2 × 1 mm, fusiform-ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous, brown; styles 3–4, usually terminal, 1 mm long, strongly recurved, usually glabrous. Female inflorescences 1–8 cm long, extending to up to 17 cm long (much longer in W Africa and Zaire) in fruit, pendulous, unbranched, not galled, otherwise as in male.
    Fruits
    Fruits (6)7–9(10) × (4)5–7.5 mm when dried, 8–10(12) × 5–8 mm when fresh, ellipsoid, slightly asymmetrical, strongly compressed, irregularly and coarsely foveolate when dried, glabrous, shiny, olive-green at first, turning through whitish to red, reddish-yellow, brownish-pink, purple or black when ripe, very juicy.
    Seeds
    Seeds 6 × 3 × 1 mm, ellipsoid, often aborted.
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A shrub or tree, to 30 ft. high
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences pendulous, very conspicuous
    Filaments
    Filaments bright red
    Ovary
    Ovary red
    Fruits
    Fruits red ripening to purple
    Ecology
    In rain forest.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Antidesma vogelianum Müll.Arg. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2010 Cheek, M. [11634], Cameroon K000678381
    May 1, 2010 Etuge, M. [5171], Cameroon K000678377
    Jun 1, 2009 Pollard, B.J. [1383], Cameroon K000581643
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2827], Cameroon K000436488
    Mar 1, 2004 Ujor, E.U. [30410], Cameroon K000180677
    Feb 1, 2004 Cheek, M. [10430], Cameroon K000746216
    Feb 1, 2004 Onana, J.-M. [2033], Cameroon K000746217
    May 1, 2002 Lane, P. [340], Cameroon K000026650
    May 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [10386], Cameroon K000026649
    May 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [2581], Cameroon K000026647
    May 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [2802], Cameroon K000026651
    May 1, 2002 Mackinder, B. [322], Cameroon K000026648
    Jan 1, 1994 Harris, D.J. [3662], Cameroon K000540045
    Jan 1, 1994 Harris, D.J. [3789], Cameroon K000540046
    Jan 1, 1994 Watts, J. [695], Cameroon K000540047
    Jan 1, 1994 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [501], Cameroon K000510998
    Jan 1, 1993 Mbani, J. M. [87], Cameroon K000085135
    Jan 1, 1992 Watts, J. [183], Cameroon K000011515
    Jan 1, 1992 Watts, J. [252], Cameroon K000011516
    Jan 1, 1992 Watts, J. [138], Cameroon K000011517
    Oct 1, 1987 Vogel [22], Nigeria K000406437 holotype
    Oct 1, 1987 Vogel [22], Nigeria K000406439 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1987 Thomas, D.W. [6855], Cameroon K000180700
    Jan 1, 1987 Letouzey, R. [14494], Cameroon K000180686
    Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, D.W. [5416], Cameroon K000180694
    Jan 1, 1985 Thomas, D.W. [4411], Cameroon K000180692
    Jun 1, 1975 Letouzey, R. [13826], Cameroon K000180904
    Dec 1, 1955 Maitland, T.D. [1158], Cameroon K000180675
    Jan 1, 1955 Maitland, T.D. [548], Cameroon K000180670
    Jan 1, 1955 Maitland, T.D. [548], Cameroon K000180671
    Jan 1, 1955 Maitland, T.D. [662], Cameroon K000180672
    Jan 1, 1955 Maitland, T.D. [662], Cameroon K000180673
    Jan 1, 1955 Maitland, T.D. [548], Cameroon K000180690
    Milne-Redhead, E. [2946], Zambia 41680.000
    Olorunfemi, J. [30604], Cameroon K000180669
    Faulkner, H. [2496], Tanzania 22762.000
    Binuyo, A. [35158], Cameroon K000180668
    Thomas, D.W. [585], Cameroon K000180691
    Thomas, D.W. [2698], Cameroon K000180693
    Thomas, D.W. [5145], Cameroon K000180697
    Thomas, D.W. [5146], Cameroon K000180698
    Cheek, M. [6099], Cameroon K000436895
    Gartlan, S. [Marz] 37716.000
    Etuge, M. [177], Cameroon K000180696
    Vogel [22], Nigeria K000406438
    Nemba, J. [63], Cameroon K000180695
    Nemba, J. [458], Cameroon K000180902
    Patel, H. [s.n.], Malawi K000614644
    Timberlake, J. [5291], Mozambique K000614021
    Timberlake, J. [5391], Mozambique K000614384
    Brunt, M.A. [1101], Cameroon K000180667
    Zenker, G.A. [988], Cameroon Antidesma staudtii K000406432 Unknown type material
    Zenker, G.A. [3208], Cameroon Antidesma staudtii K000406433

    First published in Flora 47: 529 (1864)

    Accepted by

    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Breteler, F.J. (2012). Flore du Gabon 43: 1-107. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 15: 119.
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 645
    • in Flora 47: 529 (1864)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0