1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Bischofia Blume
      1. Bischofia javanica Blume

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to S. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Tree 4–15 m. tall, with a narrow crown and drooping branches; bark brown, slightly scaly; wood very soft.
    Twigs
    Twigs sparingly lenticellate; shoots, petioles and petiolules glabrous.
    Leaves
    Petioles 9–17 cm. long, pulvinate at the base; median petiolules 3.5–5 cm. long, laterals 0.5–2 cm. long; leaflets 3(–5), elliptic-ovate to elliptic-obovate, (5–)7–14 cm. long, 3–9 cm. wide, the laterals slightly asymmetrical and smaller than the terminal, acutely or subacutely and often abruptly acuminate at apex, cuneate or rounded at base, crenate-serrate, firmly membranaceous to chartaceous, lateral nerves 7–9(–11), not or scarcely prominent above, slightly so beneath, weakly brochidodromous and reticulate towards the margin, tertiary nerves reticulate, glabrous above, sparingly puberulous at least along the midrib and otherwise ± glabrous beneath, dark green and somewhat shiny above, paler and duller beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules lanceolate to triangular-lanceolate, 0.7–1 (–2) cm. long, acutely acuminate, entire, subglabrous, brown.
    Male
    Male panicles (9–)11–14(–20) cm. long; peduncles ± 2–2.5 cm. long; axis and rhachides sparingly minutely puberulous; bracts ovate, 1–2 mm. long, acute, brown. Male flowers:pedicels 2 mm. long, slender, articulate 1/3 up from the base, pubescent below the articulation, glabrous above it; sepals broadly elliptic, 2 mm. long, rounded, ciliolate, yellowish green; stamens 1.1 mm. long, anthers 0.9 mm. long and wide, yellow; pistillode 0.5 mm. high, 0.7 mm. across.
    Inflorescences
    Female panicles somewhat larger (up to 27 cm. long), with the peduncles up to 7 cm. long. Male panicles (9–)11–14(–20) cm. long; peduncles ± 2–2.5 cm. long; axis and rhachides sparingly minutely puberulous; bracts ovate, 1–2 mm. long, acute, brown.
    Female
    Female panicles somewhat larger (up to 27 cm. long), with the peduncles up to 7 cm. long. Female flowers:pedicels (1–)2–4 mm. long, articulate, pubescent throughout, extending to 2 cm. long in fruit; sepals ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 1.5–2 mm. long, acute, subentire, sparingly puberulous without at the base, otherwise glabrous, pale green with white margins; ovary subglobose, 1–1.5 mm. in diameter, ± smooth, glabrous; style-arms (4–)5–6 mm. long, stigmas slightly papillose.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels (1–)2–4 mm. long, articulate, pubescent throughout, extending to 2 cm. long in fruit; sepals ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 1.5–2 mm. long, acute, subentire, sparingly puberulous without at the base, otherwise glabrous, pale green with white margins; ovary subglobose, 1–1.5 mm. in diameter, ± smooth, glabrous; style-arms (4–)5–6 mm. long, stigmas slightly papillose. Male flowers:pedicels 2 mm. long, slender, articulate 1/3 up from the base, pubescent below the articulation, glabrous above it; sepals broadly elliptic, 2 mm. long, rounded, ciliolate, yellowish green; stamens 1.1 mm. long, anthers 0.9 mm. long and wide, yellow; pistillode 0.5 mm. high, 0.7 mm. across.
    Fruits
    Fruit 5–6 mm. in diameter, ± smooth.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, smooth, somewhat shiny, yellowish brown.
    Habitat
    Cultivated in gardens and arboreta, becoming naturalized as an understorey tree in evergreen forest; 1550–1770 m.
    Distribution
    native from S. India eastwards to S. China and the Cook Is., occasionally cultivated elsewhere K4 K5
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2200 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Árbol

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niue, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Society Is., Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Florida, Kenya, Ogasawara-shoto, Puerto Rico

    Bischofia javanica Blume appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1925 Wight, R. [941], India K000246702 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1925 Wight, R. [941], India K000246701 Unknown type material
    Smith, T.E [s.n.], India K000246700 Unknown type material
    Roxburgh, W. [s.n], India K000246699 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [54], Jawa K001056539

    First published in Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 1168 (1827)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2018). Indo-Burmese Phyllanthaceae: A Taxonomic Revision: 1-437. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • van Welzen, P.C. (2016). Bischofia and Hymenocardia (Phyllanthaceae) in Malesia Blumea 61: 272-279.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wheatley, J.I. (1992). A guide to the common trees of Vanuatu. With lists of their traditional uses & ni-Vanuatu names: 1-308. Department of Forestry, Port Vila.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Gardner, R.O. (2011). Trees and shrubs of Niue: an identification guide to the island's indigenous and naturalised woody plants: 1-244. R.O. Gardner, Auckland, New Zealand.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide to the forests of the British Solomon islands: 1-208. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147 (15): 313 (1922).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 478 (1866).
    • Bl., Bijdr. 17: 1168 (1826/7).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0