1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Cleistanthus Hook.f. ex Planch.
      1. Cleistanthus polystachyus Hook.f. ex Planch.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A straggly shrub or small to medium much-branched evergreen tree 3.5–18 m. high with a wide or columnar crown and with pendulous branches reaching the ground, monoecious or dioecious.
    Stem
    Trunk fluted.
    Bark
    Bark ± smooth, grey-brown to dark brown, soft, thin, flaking in small patches.
    Twigs
    Twigs purplish grey or purplish brown, evenly minutely lenticellate.
    Shoots
    Young shoots and petioles glabrous, sparingly ferruginous pubescent or ferruginous tomentose.
    Leaves
    Petioles 3–6 mm. long. Leaf-blades oblong, elliptic-oblong, elliptic or sometimes elliptic-oblanceolate, (3–)4–16 cm. long, 1–6 cm. wide, obtusely acuminate to caudate-acuminate, cuneate or rounded, the two halves entering the petiole, coriaceous, lateral nerves 7–10(–12) pairs, brochidodromous, not prominent above, slightly so beneath, tertiary nerves reticulate, not prominent above, scarcely so beneath, glabrous above and beneath except for a few scattered hairs near the base of the midrib, dark green and glossy above, paler beneath, drying reddish- or greyish-brown.
    Stipules
    Stipules linear or lanceolate, (5–)7–10(–12) mm. long, subacute, membranaceous, translucent, sparingly ciliate towards the apex, otherwise quite glabrous, readily caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, rarely subterminal, usually solitary, occasionally paired, pseudoracemose, up to 20-flowered, all or mostly ♂, sometimes with 1–3 ♀ flowers either at the base or apex or scattered along the axis; axis extended, 1–5 cm. long, densely fulvous, bronzy, coppery or ferruginous pubescent, sometimes with 2–3 small leaves 1.5–2 mm. long and 0.7–1 mm. wide along its length; bracts ovate-lanceolate to triangular-lanceolate, 2–2.5 mm. long, obtuse or acute, evenly to densely pubescent without.
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant. Female flowers:pedicels 4–8 mm. long, thickened towards the top, not exceeding 1 cm. in fruit, densely pubescent; buds ± conical; sepals caducous, otherwise ± as in the ♂ flowers; petals 2 mm. long, elliptic, ± entire; disc annular, thick, 3 mm. diameter, ± entire, densely fulvous pubescent; ovary subglobose-ovoid, 2 mm. long and wide, densely ferruginous pubescent; styles 3, free, 2 mm. long, thick, twice bifid, pubescent at the base, stigmas papillose, glabrous. Male flowers:pedicels 5–8 mm. long, tomentose; buds ovoid, truncate at the base; sepals narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 5–6 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, subacute, cucullate, densely bronzy, coppery or ferruginous tomentose without, glabrous within, yellow or creamy yellow, occasionally purplish; petals 1 mm. long, elliptic or ± so, subentire or irregularly denticulate; disc pulvinate, 3 mm. diameter, entire, densely fulvous pubescent; staminal column completely enclosed by the disc; filaments 3 mm. long; anthers 2 mm. long; pistillode tripartite, 2 mm. high, densely pubescent.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 5–8 mm. long, tomentose; buds ovoid, truncate at the base; sepals narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 5–6 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, subacute, cucullate, densely bronzy, coppery or ferruginous tomentose without, glabrous within, yellow or creamy yellow, occasionally purplish; petals 1 mm. long, elliptic or ± so, subentire or irregularly denticulate; disc pulvinate, 3 mm. diameter, entire, densely fulvous pubescent; staminal column completely enclosed by the disc; filaments 3 mm. long; anthers 2 mm. long; pistillode tripartite, 2 mm. high, densely pubescent.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 4–8 mm. long, thickened towards the top, not exceeding 1 cm. in fruit, densely pubescent; buds ± conical; sepals caducous, otherwise ± as in the ♂ flowers; petals 2 mm. long, elliptic, ± entire; disc annular, thick, 3 mm. diameter, ± entire, densely fulvous pubescent; ovary subglobose-ovoid, 2 mm. long and wide, densely ferruginous pubescent; styles 3, free, 2 mm. long, thick, twice bifid, pubescent at the base, stigmas papillose, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Fruit trilobate-subglobose, 9–12 mm. long, 11–13 mm. diameter, green, evenly ferruginous pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid or heart-shaped, 7–8 mm. long, 6 mm. wide, smooth, somewhat shiny, light brown.
    Habitat
    A locally common understorey tree in evergreen forest, sometimes riverine or in semi-swamp forest; 700–1625 m.
    Distribution
    K4 T1 T3 T4 T7 U1 U2 U4 Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, then from Cameroun eastwards to Zaire (Orientale) and south to N. Angola and Zaire (Shaba)
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A shrub or small tree, to 30 ft. high
    Ecology
    In forest.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Cleistanthus polystachyus Hook.f. ex Planch. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 1, 2010 Etuge, M. [5283], Cameroon K000023362
    Aug 1, 1960 Welwitsch [353], Angola K000406056 Unknown type material
    Aug 1, 1960 Whitfield [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000406076 holotype

    First published in Hooker's Icon. Pl. 8: t. 779 (1848)

    Accepted by

    • Breteler, F.J. (2012). Flore du Gabon 43: 1-107. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 2: 54, t. 133, 7–9.
    • Jablonszky in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 8: 47 (1915)
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 624
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 211, t. 64/1 (1983).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 251, t. 87. 1 (1982)
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 195 (1962).
    • J. Léon. in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 8(1): 26 (1962).
    • J. Léon. in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 30(4): 430 (1960)
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 371 (1958).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 118 (1952).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 40 (1921).
    • Jabl. in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(8): 47 (1915).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 624 (1912).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 504 (1866).
    • Planch. in Hook., Ic. Pl. 8, t. 779 (1848).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0