1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Canthium Lam.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to W. Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D. Bridson. Flora Zambesiaca 5:2. 1998

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees, sometimes scandent; spines absent or present.
    Leaves
    Heterophylly sometimes apparent; leaves either deciduous and restricted to brachyblasts (contracted lateral spurs) or apex of stem, or evergreen and spaced along the branches, opposite, paired, petiolate; domatia absent, pit-like or present as tufts of hair; stipules shortly sheathing, apiculate or aristate, glabrous or pubescent within.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, 4–5 merous, pedicellate or not, borne in pedunculate to subsessile few–many-flowered cymes; inflorescence branches present, sometimes reduced; bracteoles inconspicuous.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube broadly ellipsoid to ovoid, ± obsolete or somewhat reduced, scarcely equalling the disk, bearing triangular or linear lobes.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or yellowish, glabrous or rarely pubescent outside; tube broadly cylindrical, ± equal to lobes or sometimes longer or shorter, with or without a ring of deflexed hairs inside, often pubescent at throat; lobes reflexed or less often erect, obtuse, acute or shortly apiculate.
    Stamens
    Stamens set at throat; anthers subsessile or borne on short filaments, with or without darkened connective tissue on dorsal face.
    Gynoecium
    Style slender, shortly exceeding the corolla tube, glabrous; pollen presenter ± spherical, point of attachment within a distinct basal recess, 2(3)-lobed; ovary 2(3)-locular.
    Disc
    Disk glabrous (pubescent in some South African species).
    Fruits
    Fruit a 2(3)-seeded drupe or often 1-seeded by abortion, small to moderately large, strongly dorsiventrally flattened or not, strongly or scarcely indented at apex; pyrenes ellipsoid to ovoid or obovoid, often flattened on ventral face, thinly woody, slightly to distinctly triangular or truncate at point of attachment, with a shallow crest extending to apex, usually rugulose.
    Seeds
    Seeds with endosperm entire; testa finely reticulate; embryo ± straight to curved with radicle erect; cotyledons small, perpendicular to ventral face of seed.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees, sometimes scandent; spines absent or if present straight
    Leaves
    Heterophylly sometimes apparent; leaves either deciduous and restricted to brachyblasts or apex of stem, or evergreen and spaced along the branches, opposite, paired, petiolate, papery to subcoriaceous, domatia absent, pit-like or present as tufts of hair; stipules shortly sheathing, apiculate or aristate, glabrous or pubescent within
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or ♀ and ♂, 4–5-merous, pedicellate or not, borne in pedunculate to subsessile few–many-flowered cymes; inflorescence-branches present or reduced; bracteoles inconspicuous
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube broadly ellipsoid to ovoid; tubular part of limb ± obsolete or somewhat reduced, scarcely equalling the disk, bearing dentate, triangular or linear lobes
    Corolla
    Corolla white or yellowish, glabrous or rarely pubescent outside; tube broadly cylindrical, ± equal to lobes or sometimes longer or shorter, with or without a ring of deflexed hairs inside, often pubescent at throat; lobes reflexed, obtuse, acute or shortly apiculate
    Stamens
    Stamens set at throat; anthers subessile or borne on short filaments, with or without darkened connective tissue on dorsal face
    Pistil
    Style slender, shortly exceeding the corolla-tube, glabrous; stigmatic knob ± spherical, point of attachment distinctly recessed, 2(–3)-lobed; ovary 2(–3)-locular
    Disc
    Disk glabrous
    Fruits
    Fruit a 2(–3)-seeded drupe or often 1-seeded by abortion, small to moderately large, strongly dorsiventrally flattened or not, strongly or scarcely indented at apex; pyrenes ellipsoid to ovoid or obovoid, often flattened on ventral face, thinly woody, slightly to distinctly triangular or truncate at point of attachment, with a shallow crest extending to apex, usually rugulose
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened on ventral face, very shortly crested around apex; endosperm entire; testa finely reticulate; embryo ± straight to curved with radicle erect; cotyledons small, perpendicular to ventral face of seed.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Ethiopia, Free State, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Guinea, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Canthium Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Papua New Guinea 2700.020
    Nigeria 3292.000
    Wild, H. [44573], Zimbabwe 856.000
    Jacobs, M. [5232] 31300.000
    Davis, A.P. [2148], Madagascar 61303.000
    Davis, A.P. [1020], Madagascar 61808.000
    Davis, A.P. [1036], Madagascar 61813.000
    Davis, A.P. [2157], Madagascar 63668.000
    Davis, A.P. [2576], Madagascar 64153.000
    Davis, A.P. [1077], Madagascar 62451.000
    Davis, A.P. [1063], Madagascar 62453.000
    Davis, A.P. [1139], Madagascar 62454.000
    Davis, A.P. [1156], Madagascar 62456.000
    Davis, A.P. [1028], Madagascar 62465.000
    Davis, A.P. [1193], Madagascar 71173.000
    Davis, A.P. [1199], Madagascar 71554.000
    Davis, A.P. [1133], Madagascar 71555.000
    Davis, A.P. [2705], Madagascar 72935.000
    Baker, W.J. [1039], Madagascar 73894.000
    Rakotonasolo, F. [RNF 79], Madagascar 70167.000
    Rakotonasolo [107], Madagascar 73319.000
    Vidal [1464], Philippines K000771544
    Vidal [806], Philippines K000771545
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8417] K001125443
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8415] K001125441
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8416] K001125442

    First published in Encycl. 1: 602 (1783)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 3: 132.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Kew Bull. 47: 353–401 (1992).
    • Bridson in F.T.E.A., Rubiaceae: 861–885 (1991)
    • Encycl. Méth., Bot. 1: 602 (1785).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Encycl. Méth. Bot. 1: 602 (1785)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0