1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Otiophora Zucc.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, with erect, straggling or procumbent stems
    Leaves
    Leaves very variable, mostly small, linear to round, paired or in whorls of 3 or pseudo-verticillate, sessile or shortly petiolate; stipules connate with the petiole to form a sheath, divided into ± linear segments
    Flowers
    Flowers small, hermaphrodite, not dimorphic, paired, arranged in short to long spikes or dense heads or combinations of both
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube ovoid or angular; lobes 5, 1–3 foliaceous, much larger than the rest and resembling the leaves of the species concerned, or 1–2 foliaceous, 1–2 smaller foliaceous and the remainder in each case reduced to minute teeth or bristles
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube mostly filiform, less often narrowly funnel-shaped; lobes 4–5, ovate to narrowly lanceolate; throat glabrous or in one species densely hairy
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–5, well exserted, the filaments glabrous or less often hairy or with hairy projections
    Pistil
    Ovary bilocular, the ovules solitary in each locule, erect, attached to the partition very close to the base; style glabrous, filiform, well exserted; stigma bifid (rarely 3-fid), the lobes filiform
    Fruits
    Fruit ovate, subglobose or oblong, usually splitting into 2 (rarely 3) cocci one of which is crowned by the persistent foliaceous calyx-lobe or lobes
    Seeds
    Seeds black, granulate, subglobose, ovoid or oblong, depressed ventrally, convex dorsally, sometimes slightly keeled mid-dorsally and with a round, oval or linear depression surrounding the hilum corresponding to the shape of the seed.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:1. 1989

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs or sometimes dwarf shrubs.
    Stem
    Stems erect to prostrate, ± terete to obscurely 4-angled, covered with yellowish to whitish, ± spreading or curled multicellular hairs above, often becoming glabrescent below.
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate or occasionally in whorls of 3(4), often seemingly in much larger numbers at nodes (‘pseudo-verticillate’; due to the presence of leafy, much-contracted short shoots); blades variable in size and shape, ± ovate to linear, ± acute to obtuse at apex, membranaceous to coriaceous, with 2–4 usually ± indistinct lateral veins on either side of midvein, glabrous or hairy on margins, veins or surfaces, margins ± flat to slightly revolute; petioles short to subobsolete; stipular sheaths ± cup-shaped, with 3–5(7) ± linear setae or fimbriae on either side, the median often (much) longer than the others.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence head- or spike-like, usually elongated when in fruit.
    Flowers
    Flowers paired, on very short, persistent pedicels, hermaphrodite, protandrous, 4–5-merous.
    Calyx
    Calyx: lobes unequal, 1 (2; very rarely 3) enlarged, foliaceous, other lobes minute, setiform.
    Buds
    Bud with limb abruptly expanded into a subcylindrical to ovoid head, or limb and tube not distinct from each other.
    Corolla
    Corolla glabrous or throat and tube hairy inside, lobes lanceolate to oblong, ± acute at apex.
    Stamens
    Stamens exserted, filaments inserted at or near throat, thin, ± erect and stiff, glabrous or hairy near base; anthers oblong.
    Pistil
    Ovary bicarpellate and biovulate (but one carpel sometimes smaller and ± reduced or in one species completely sterile), mostly shortly hairy; style glabrous, filiform; stigma bifid, lobes filiform.
    Fruits
    Fruit crowned by persistent calyx lobes, dehiscing into two mericarps, each convex on dorsal side and plane or slighdy concave on ventral side.
    Seeds
    Seed ± oblong to ± ovoid, granulate, dorsal side convex, ventral side flat, concave or ± hollowed out, with a median longitudinal ridge.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Otiophora Zucc. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 1: 315 (1829-1830 publ. 1832)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —Verdcourt in J. Linn. Soc. 53: 383 (1950).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in F.T.E.A., Rubiaceae 1: 315 (1976).
    • in Garcia de Orta, Sér. Bot. 1: 25 (1973)
    • Verdc. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 53: 383 (1950)
    • in Abh. Akad. Münch. 1: 315 (1832).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Garcia de Orta, Ser. Bot. 1 (1–2): 25 (1973)
    • Verdc., in J.L.S. 53: 383–412 (1950)
    • in Abh. Akad. Muench. 1: 315 (1832)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0