1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Leptopus Decne.
      1. Leptopus australis (Zoll. & Moritzi) Pojark.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SW. Hainan, Indo-China to Malesia.

    [KBu]

    Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. 2009. Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato). Kew Bulletin 64: 627. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-009-9155-x

    Habit
    Herb to subshrub, ascendant to erect, monoecious, 0.1 – 0.5 m high
    Twigs
    Twigs terete to bilaterally flattened, hirsute, light green to brown
    Stipules
    Stipules deltoid to subulate, basally not auriculate, apically acute, ferrugineous to almost black, 1 – 2.5 × 0.2 – 0.6 mm, glabrous to hirsute, margin entire, ciliate
    Petiole
    Petiole 5 – 20 × 0.5 – 0.8 mm, ½ - ⅙ of leaf blade length, hirsute
    Leaves
    Leaf blade ovate to lanceolate or obovate, basally long attenuate to acute, sometimes obtuse, apically obtuse to acute, (1.5) 2.5 – 7 (10) × (0.7) 1.2 – 2 (3.2) cm, 1 – 3.5 times longer than wide, membranaceous to thin chartaceous, drying discolorous to concolorous reddish to yellowish or greyish green, glabrous to hirsute adaxially, hirsute abaxially, margin hirsute; midvein adaxially flat, abaxially prominent, secondary veins 4 – 6 pairs, adaxially flat, abaxially flat to prominent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences unisexual or bisexual, male inflorescence axis 0 – 3 mm long
    Bracts
    Bracts as stipules
    Disc
    Disc bilobed for ⅘ - ¾ of length, lobes apically truncate to acute, 0.7 – 1.2 × 0.1 – 0.2 mm, ⅔ as long to slightly shorter than sepals, slightly longer or shorter than petals Disc bilobed for ½ - ¾ of length, 0.3 – 0.8 × 0.2 – 0.4 mm, apically acute to truncate, erose or crenulate, up to ¼ of sepal length
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, 0.8 – 1.5 mm long; filaments 0.7 – 1.3 mm long; anthers 0.2 – 0.3 × 0.2 – 0.25 mm
    Pistillodes
    Pistillode trilobed for ¼ of length or almost to base, 0.35 – 0.8 mm long, ¼ - ¾ of stamen length, glabrous
    Flowers
    Female flowers 1 – 4 per fascicle, 2 – 4 × 3 – 6 mm, 3 – 4 times larger than male, rotate Male flowers 1 – 4 (rarely up to 6) per fascicle, 0.8 – 1.3 × 1.5 – 2.5 mm
    Pedicel
    Pedicel 2 – 5 mm long, not articulate, hirsute Fruiting pedicel 5 – 9 mm long Pedicel 4 – 8 × less than 1.5 mm, articulate just above base, glabrous to hirsute
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, ovate to obovate or oblong, apically acute to cuspidate, 1.5 – 3 × 1 – 2 mm, 0 – 3-veined, hirsute, margin entire, hirsute, eglandular Fruiting sepals accrescent to 2 – 6 × 1 – 3.5 mm Sepals 5, obovate to oblong, apically rounded, 1 – 1.6 × 0.6 – 1 mm, membranaceous, 0 – 3-veined, hirsute outside, glabrous inside, margin erose, glabrous to ciliate, eglandular
    Corolla
    Petals 5, linear to obovate, apically rounded, 0.1 – 0.5 × 0.1 – 0.2 mm, extending to ½ length of disc to slightly beyond disc, without veins, glabrous Petals 5, obovate to linear, apically rounded, 0.6 – 1.2 × 0.2 – 0.3 mm, ½ - ¾ of sepal length, membranaceous, 0 – 1-veined, glabrous on both sides, margin entire to erose, glabrous
    Ovary
    Ovary 3-locular, densely hirsute; styles 3, 0.6 – 1 mm long, free, glabrous to basally hirsute; stigmas dilated to capitate
    Fruits
    Columella widest at base, apically linear, 1 – 1.5 × c. 0.5 mm Fruit 1.5 – 2 × 3 – 4.5 mm, smooth to faintly reticulate, hirsute, drying red brown to orange brown
    Seeds
    Seeds triquetrous, 1.2 – 1.9 × 1 – 1.5 × 1 – 1.5 mm, without appendages, transversely to irregularly ridged in the same seed, orange to brown
    Embryo
    Embryo with radicle as long as cotyledons or slightly longer
    Distribution
    From Thailand, Andaman Islands and the Chinese Islands of Hainan, south to Sumatera, Java, and Timor, and east to the Philippines.
    Ecology
    Evergreen forest understorey on sand or limestone; 0 – 400 m.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC): extent of occurrence exceeds 20,000 km2.
    Note
    The variable and widespread Leptopus australis can be immediately distinguished from other species of Leptopus by its smaller stature, dense indumentum, short female pedicels, small orange brown fruit and often attenuate leaf bases. L. australis and L. robinsonii are the only two species of Leptopus with deeply ridged seed. L. hirtus is a formal synonym of L. australis here for the first time, although this has been suggested in the past. Henderson (1939) stated that both Andrachne calcarea and A. hirta “appear to be merely forms” of L. australis. Airy Shaw (1964) tentatively agreed but eight years later (Airy Shaw 1971a publ. 1972) treated L. calcareus separately, noting that “it may be no more than a distinct ecotype” of L. australis. Van Welzen & Chayamarit (2007) treated L. calcareus as a synonym of L. australis.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Borneo, Hainan, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam

    Leptopus australis (Zoll. & Moritzi) Pojark. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 Sumathi, R. [17362], Andaman Is K000254333 isotype
    Aug 1, 2007 Henderson, M.R. [22839], Peninsular Malaysia K000186366
    Aug 1, 2007 Henderson, M.R. [23824], Peninsular Malaysia K000186367
    Aug 1, 2007 Henderson, M.R. [19513], Malaysia K000186368
    Aug 1, 2007 Corner, E.J.H. [37802], Peninsular Malaysia K000186372
    Aug 1, 2007 Ridley, H.N. [14883], Malaysia K000186364 holotype
    Aug 1, 2007 Ridley, H.N. [8203], Malaysia K000186374 paratype
    Aug 1, 2007 Beaman, J.H. [10122], Sabah K000186405
    Aug 1, 2007 Dr King's collector [2383], Peninsular Malaysia K000186362
    Aug 1, 2007 Dr King's collector [2383], Peninsular Malaysia K000186363
    Aug 1, 2007 Curtis, C. [2540], Peninsular Malaysia K000186375
    Aug 1, 2007 Merrill, E.D. [11538], Philippines K000186415
    Aug 1, 2007 Pierre, L. [6257], Indo-China K000186393
    Aug 1, 2007 Backer, C.A. [10053], Jawa K000186406
    Aug 1, 2007 Best, G.A. [21233], Peninsular Malaysia K000186365
    Aug 1, 2007 Kiah [35249], Peninsular Malaysia K000186370
    Aug 1, 2007 Robinson, H.C. [6201], Malaysia K000186373 paratype
    Aug 1, 2007 FSP, Ng [FRI 27045], Peninsular Malaysia K000186376
    Aug 1, 2007 Dilmy, A. [1046], Bali K000186407
    Aug 1, 2007 Buwalda, P. [4194], Maluku K000186410
    Aug 1, 2007 Sulit, M. D. [17048], Philippines K000186414
    Aug 1, 2007 Nauen, J.C. [38012], Peninsular Malaysia K000186371
    Aug 1, 2007 McGregor, R.C. [20009], Philippines K000186413
    Aug 1, 2007 Md. Nur [12126], Peninsular Malaysia K000186369
    Aug 1, 2007 Cuming, H. [1608], Philippines K000186411
    Aug 1, 2007 Cuming, H. [1528], Philippines K000186416 isotype
    Aug 1, 2007 Annandale, N. [1835], Thailand K000186396 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2007 Cuming, H. [1528], Philippines K000186417 isotype
    Jul 1, 2002 Middleton, D.J. [199], Thailand K000187438
    Jun 26, 2003 Collins, D.J. [1884], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186390
    Jun 26, 2003 Rabil [315], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186398
    Jun 23, 2003 Marcan, A. [1210], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186377
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4155], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186378
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2045], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186379
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9261], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186381
    Kerr, A.F.G. [10871], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186385
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11193], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186386
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19841], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186388
    Kerr, A.F.G. [17892], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186389
    Larsen, K. [9829], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186391
    Geesink, R. [6757], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186392
    Smitinand, T. [3167], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186387
    s.coll. [1030], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186384
    Poilane, M. [19723] Andrachne australis K000186394
    Allum? [8810], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186380
    Jaray [49], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186382
    Chermsirivathana, C. [1500], Thailand Andrachne australis K000186383
    Squires, R.W. [893], Vietnam Andrachne australis K000186395
    Jun 26, 2003 Kerr, A.F.G. [15348], Thailand Andrachne calcarea K000186399
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19284], Thailand Andrachne calcarea K000186400
    Larsen, K. [21260], Thailand Andrachne calcarea K000186402
    Charoenphol, Ch. [3636], Thailand Andrachne calcarea K000186401

    First published in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 270 (1960)

    Accepted by

    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2018). Indo-Burmese Phyllanthaceae: A Taxonomic Revision: 1-437. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. (2010). Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) Kew Bulletin 64: 627-644.
    • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Andrachne australis.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. (2010). Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) Kew Bulletin 64: 627-644.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0