1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Leptopus Decne.
      1. Leptopus chinensis (Bunge) Pojark.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Caucasus to N. Iran, N. Pakistan, China to N. Myanmar.

    [KBu]

    Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. 2009. Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato). Kew Bulletin 64: 627. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-009-9155-x

    Note
    Synonym: Arachne chinensis (Bunge) Pojark. (1940: 342), nom. invalid. This species includes a great variety of flexible phenotypes, several of which have been described as species. Leaf size and overall appearance can also vary with plant age. Leptopus chinensis is cultivated in numerous botanic gardens in Europe and North America, usually labelled as L. colchicus. Govaerts et al. (2000) have included Andrachne cavaleriei H. Lév. (1913: 187) as a synonym of A. chinensis. This is in fact Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl. var. cavaleriei (H. Lév.) Hand.-Mazz. (1934: 294); Lauener (1983: 476), Primulaceae. Synonym: Andrachne chinensis Bunge (1833: 59).
    Type
    China borealis, Bunge s.n. (holotype LE!).
    Habit
    Monoecious (rarely dioecious) erect shrub, 0.5 – 4 m
    Stem
    Stem straight
    Twigs
    Twigs longitudinally ribbed, sometimes terete, glabrous to hirsute, light green to brown
    Stipules
    Stipules ovate to deltoid, basally truncate to cordate or auriculate, apically acute to acuminate, ferrugineous to almost black, 0.5 – 2 × 0.4 – 1.1 mm, glabrous to hirsute, margin entire to erose, glabrous to ciliate
    Petiole
    Petiole 0.5 – 8 × 0.15 – 0.4 mm, ⅙ - ⅒ of leaf blade length, glabrous to hirsute
    Leaves
    Leaf blade ovate to lanceolate, sometimes oblong or orbicular, basally acute to truncate, rarely cordate, apically obtuse to acuminate (most commonly acute), sometimes rounded, sometimes mucronate, (0.5) 0.8 – 3 (5) × (0.3) 0.4 – 1.5 (2.3) cm, 1.5 – 6 times longer than wide, membranaceous to chartaceous, drying concolorous to discolorous green to yellow green, brown, grey or dark red, glabrous to densely hirsute on both sides, margin glabrous to densely hirsute; midvein adaxially prominent, flat or impressed, abaxially prominent, secondary veins 3 – 6 pairs, rarely obscure, adaxially prominent, flat or impressed, abaxially prominent to flat
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences unisexual or bisexual, male inflorescence axis 0 – 0.1 (3) mm long
    Bracts
    Bracts as stipules
    Flowers
    Male flowers 1 – 4 per fascicle, 1 – 3 × 2 – 5 mm Female flowers 1 – 2 per fascicle, 2 – 4 × 3 – 6 mm, as large as male to twice as large, rotate
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, 1 – 1.8 mm long; filaments 0.8 – 1.5 mm long; anthers 0.2 – 0.3 × 0.2 – 0.25 mm
    Pistillodes
    Pistillode trilobed for ¾ of length or to base, 0.25 – 1.2 mm long, ⅙ of stamen length to as long as stamens, glabrous to hirsute
    Corolla
    Petals 5, obovate, apically rounded, 0.2 – 0.6 × 0.2 – 0.3 mm, extending slightly beyond the disc or to the same length as disc, without veins, glabrous Petals 5, obovate to spathulate or elliptic, apically rounded to truncate, 1 – 1.8 × 0.3 – 1 mm, ½ - ¾ of sepal length, membranaceous, 0 – 3-veined, glabrous on both sides, margin entire to undulate or erose, glabrous
    Disc
    Disc bilobed for ⅓ - ½ of length, 0.3 – 0.8 × 0.3 – 0.7 mm, apically rounded, entire to erose, up to ¼ of sepal length Disc bilobed for ⅓ - ⅔ of length, lobes apically rounded, 0.4 – 1 × 0.2 – 0.4 mm, ⅓ - ⅔ as long as sepals, ½ - ⅔ as long as petals
    Ovary
    Ovary 3-locular, glabrous to hirsute; styles 3, 0.7 – 1.3 mm long, free, glabrous; stigmas dilated to capitate
    Pedicel
    Fruiting pedicel 7 – 22 mm long Pedicel 3 – 12 × less than 1.5 mm, articulate just above base, glabrous to hirsute Pedicel 6 – 14 mm long, not articulate, glabrous to hirsute. Sepals 5, ovate to obovate or oblong, apically rounded to cuspidate, 1 – 3.5 × 0.8 – 2.5 mm, 0 – 5-veined, glabrous to hirsute outside, glabrous inside, margin entire, glabrous to ciliate, often with 1 – 2 digitate glands up to 0.3 mm long at the base
    Calyx
    Mature sepals not accrescent Sepals 5, obovate to oblong, apically rounded, 1.8 – 3.5 × 0.8 – 1.8 mm, membranaceous, 3 – 5-veined, glabrous to hirsute outside, glabrous to hirsute inside, margin entire to erose, glabrous to ciliate, rarely with 1 – 2 digitate glands up to 0.3 mm long at the base
    Fruits
    Columella widest at base, apically linear, 1 – 2.5 × c. 0.5 mm. Seeds triquetrous, 1.2 – 3 × 0.8 – 2.2 × 1 – 2.2 mm, without appendages, smooth, yellow to red brown Fruit 2 – 4 × 2.5 – 6 mm, smooth to faintly reticulate, glabrous to hirsute, drying red brown to brown
    Embryo
    Embryo with radicle ½ as long as cotyledons or shorter.
    Distribution
    Central, southern and eastern China to northern Burma. Also in Transcaucasus, North Caucasus and Iran. One collection known from north Pakistan. Map 2. The only known collection from Hainan lacks locality and collector information and does not appear on the map.
    Ecology
    Stony slopes, open scrub or mixed forest understorey on a variety of substrates; 0 – 3000 m.
    Conservation
    Least concern (LC): extent of occurrence exceeds 20,000 km2.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Manchuria, Myanmar, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Qinghai, Tibet, Transcaucasus

    Leptopus chinensis (Bunge) Pojark. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 s.coll. [s.n.], China K000186249
    Jan 1, 2009 s.coll. [s.n.], China K000186250
    Jan 1, 2009 [illegible] [s.n.], China K000186248
    Jan 1, 2009 Bretschneider, E.V. [667], China K000186247
    Aug 1, 2007 Wilson, E.H. [4453], China K000186288 Unknown type material
    Aug 1, 2007 Wilson, E.H. [3204], China K000186289 lectotype
    Aug 1, 2007 Wilson, E.H. [5773], China K000186291 holotype
    Aug 1, 2007 Faber, E. [4], China K000186292
    Aug 1, 2007 Wilson, E. H. [3205], China K000186254
    Jun 9, 2003 Furse, P. [1082], Iran Andrachne colchica K000186225
    Bowles scholarship Bot. Expd. [826], Iran Andrachne colchica K000186226
    Schischikin, B. [476], Caucasus Andrachne colchica K000186227
    Geltman, D. [s.n.], Georgia Andrachne colchica K000252581
    Jun 23, 2003 Ward, T. Kingdon [5698], China Andrachne chinensis K000186353
    Jun 16, 2003 Delaire, J.M. [3601], China Andrachne chinensis K000186268
    Jun 16, 2003 Forrest, George [20673], China Andrachne chinensis K000186270
    Jun 16, 2003 Forrest, George [22495], China Andrachne chinensis K000186274
    Jun 16, 2003 Forrest, George [21067], China Andrachne chinensis K000186276
    Jun 16, 2003 Forrest, George [10288], China Andrachne chinensis K000186257
    Jun 16, 2003 Forrest, George, China Andrachne chinensis K000186263
    Jun 16, 2003 McLaren, H. D. [Mc/L c.46], China Andrachne chinensis K000186261
    Jun 16, 2003 Chu, K.L. [3692], China Andrachne chinensis K000186294
    Jun 16, 2003 Williams, S. W. [11449], China Andrachne chinensis K000186267
    Jun 12, 2003 s.coll. [829], China Andrachne chinensis K000186241
    Jun 12, 2003 Faber, E. [s.n.], China Andrachne chinensis K000186244
    Jun 12, 2003 Fang, W. P. [5563], China Andrachne chinensis K000186245
    Jun 12, 2003 Schneider, Camillo [1208], China Andrachne chinensis K000186243
    Jun 9, 2003 Purdom, Wm. [1079], China Andrachne chinensis K000186233
    Jun 9, 2003 Bushell, S. W. [2], China Andrachne chinensis K000186228
    Jun 9, 2003 LoNigi [896], China Andrachne chinensis K000186232
    Jun 9, 2003 Wang, T.P. [2812], China Andrachne chinensis K000186237
    Jun 9, 2003 Licent, Abbe E. [1143], China North-Central Andrachne chinensis K000186238
    Forrest, George [10894], China Andrachne chinensis K000186269
    Forrest, George [11055], China Andrachne chinensis K000186277
    Forrest, George [10532], China Andrachne chinensis K000186258
    Forrest, George [11078], China Andrachne chinensis K000186259
    Forrest, George [22554], China Andrachne chinensis K000186264
    Forrest, George [20768], China Andrachne chinensis K000186266
    Fang, W. P. [1481], China Andrachne chinensis K000186290
    Fang, W. P. [7471], China Andrachne chinensis K000186293
    Chu, K.L. [2651], China Andrachne chinensis K000186246
    Purdom, Wm. [881], China Andrachne chinensis K000186295
    Bushell, S. W. [s.n.], China Andrachne chinensis K000186230
    David, M. l'abbe A. [2407], China Andrachne chinensis K000186229
    Chanet, T. [902], China Andrachne chinensis K000186231
    Liu, J.C. [L.352], China Andrachne chinensis K000186234
    Liu, J.C. [435], China Andrachne chinensis K000186236
    Hsia, W.Y. [1610], China Andrachne chinensis K000186235
    Licent, Abbe E. [1136], China North-Central Andrachne chinensis K000186240
    Licent, Abbe E. [2380], China North-Central Andrachne chinensis K000186239

    First published in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 274 (1960)

    Accepted by

    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2018). Indo-Burmese Phyllanthaceae: A Taxonomic Revision: 1-437. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. (2010). Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) Kew Bulletin 64: 627-644.

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Andrachne chinensis.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. (2010). Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) Kew Bulletin 64: 627-644.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0