1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Leptopus Decne.
      1. Leptopus emicans (Dunn) Pojark.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Arunachal Pradesh to N. Myanmar.

    [KBu]

    Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. 2009. Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato). Kew Bulletin 64: 627. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-009-9155-x

    Type
    India, Arunachal Pradesh, Outer Abor Hills, Kobo, 6 Dec. 1911, Burkill 37068 (lectotype K! K000186357, selected here; isolectotype K!). The chosen lectotype is the only syntype sheet with seed as well as female material at various stages of fruit development.
    Habit
    Monoecious erect shrub, up to 3 m. Twigs longitudinally ribbed, glabrous, green brown
    Stipules
    Stipules deltoid, basally not auriculate, apically acute, translucent, c. 1 × 0.5 mm, glabrous, margin laciniate, glabrous
    Petiole
    Petiole 10 – 47 × 0.5 – 1 mm, ⅓ – ¼ of leaf blade length, glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaf blade elliptic, basally acute, sometimes rounded, apically acuminate to caudate, (3) 6 – 12 (13.5) × (1) 1.5 – 4 (4.6) cm, 2.5 – 3.5 times longer than wide, membranaceous, drying slightly discolorous brownish green, glabrous on both sides, margin glabrous, the caudex 10 – 15 mm long; midvein adaxially flat to prominent, abaxially prominent, secondary veins 8 – 10 pairs, adaxially flat to prominent, abaxially prominent
    Inflorescences
    Male inflorescence axis 0 – 3 mm long
    Bracts
    Bracts as stipules
    Flowers
    Male and young female flowers not seen Female flowers 1 – 3 per fascicle, rotate
    Calyx
    Mature sepals 5, ovate to obovate, apically truncate to obtuse, 1 – 1.5 × 1 mm, 1-veined, glabrous outside, glabrous inside, margin erose, glabrous, eglandular Mature petals 5, obovate, apically rounded to emarginate, c. 0.3 × 0.2 mm, slightly shorter than disc, without veins, glabrous
    Disc
    Disc bilobed for ¾ of length, 0.4 – 0.8 × 0.2 – 0.3 mm, apically rounded, entire to erose, up to ⅓ of sepal length
    Ovary
    Ovary 3 (4)-locular, glabrous; styles 3 (4), 0.6 – 0.8 mm long, free, glabrous; stigmas dilated
    Pedicel
    Fruiting pedicel 10 – 15 mm long Pedicel not articulate, glabrous Male pedicels articulate c. 0.6 mm above base
    Fruits
    Fruit 2.5 – 3 × 4 – 5 mm, strongly reticulate, glabrous, drying green Columella basally almost linear, widest at apex, 1.5 – 2 × c. 0.5 mm
    Seeds
    Seeds reniform, 1.5 – 2 × 1 – 1.5 × 1 – 1.5 mm, with fleshy orange micropylar appendage up to 0.3 mm in diam., smooth to dimpled, brown
    Embryo
    Embryo with radicle slightly shorter than cotyledons
    Distribution
    East Himalaya and Burma.
    Ecology
    Riverine vegetation; altitude not known.
    Conservation
    Vulnerable (VU B1a,b(iii)) (IUCN 2001). Extent of occurrence is below 20,000 km2 and the species is known from two areas only. Agricultural expansion is an increasing threat.
    Note
    This rare endemic taxon is aberrant in the genus Leptopus and possibly represents an independent lineage. Several gynoecium characters cause doubt as to its identity as Leptopus. Orange spongy tissue protrudes from the micropylar end of the seed, a character unique in tribe Poranthereae and extremely rare in Phyllanthaceae. The chalaza end of the seed is more strongly curved than that of other Leptopus species as the fruit is raised on a short fleshy stipe visible on dissection of a female flower. Apex of the columella is unusual with tissue protruding sideways, unlike the apically linear columella of other Leptopus species. The presence of apically wide emarginate petals has only been noted on poor quality material. Unfortunately no fresh material was available for DNA extraction and the few collections of this species lack good quality male and young female material.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    East Himalaya, Myanmar

    Leptopus emicans (Dunn) Pojark. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2007 Burkill, I.H. [37068], India K000186357 lectotype
    Aug 1, 2007 Burkill, I.H. [35955], India K000186358
    Aug 1, 2007 Burkill, I.H. [37390], India K000186359
    Aug 1, 2007 Burkill, I.H. [35955], India K000186360
    Aug 1, 2007 Burkill, I.H. [37068], India K000186361 isolectotype

    First published in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 272 (1960)

    Accepted by

    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2018). Indo-Burmese Phyllanthaceae: A Taxonomic Revision: 1-437. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Vorontsova, M.S. & Hoffmann, P. (2010). Revision of the genus Leptopus (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) Kew Bulletin 64: 627-644.

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Andrachne emicans.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0