1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Psydrax Gaertn.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D. Bridson. Flora Zambesiaca 5:2. 1998

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or scandent shrubs, sometimes climbers.
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly evergreen, sometimes deciduous and then restricted to apex of branches, paired or rarely ternate, petiolate or sometimes subsessile; blade typically coriaceous, less often chartaceous, glabrous or sometimes pubescent; domatia glabrous or pubescent, or sometimes absent; stipules usually with a truncate to broadly triangular base bearing a decurrent, slightly to very strongly keeled, sometimes foliaceous appendage, or less often lanceolate to ovate and soon caducous, never with silky white hairs inside.
    Flowers
    Flowers 4–5-merous, borne in sessile to pedunculate umbellate cymes, or in pedunculate clearly branched cymes, or flowers very rarely solitary; bracts and bracteoles typically inconspicuous, or occasionally conspicuous, or sometimes (not in Africa) entirely enclosing the developing inflorescence and eventually rupturing into 2 or more segments.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube broadly ellipsoid to ± semi-spherical; limb a truncate to dentate rim, only occasionally equalling the tube in length and often much shorter.
    Corolla
    Corolla white to yellow; tube broadly cylindrical mostly equal to the lobes in length, or somewhat longer or shorter, inside usually with a ring of deflexed hairs or sometimes with hairs not restricted to a well defined ring or absent, often pubescent at throat; lobes reflexed, often thickened towards the apex and obtuse to acute, rarely acuminate-apiculate, very rarely apiculate.
    Stamens
    Stamens set at corolla throat; filaments well developed; anthers lanceolate to narrowly ovate, attached shortly above the base, reflexed.
    Gynoecium
    Style long slender, glabrous, sometimes narrowing at apex; pollen presenter cylindrical, always longer than wide, occasionally flared or somewhat narrowed at base, hollow to the middle, bifid or rarely deeply cleft at apex when mature; disk glabrous or pubescent; ovary 2-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus, attached to the upper third of the septum.
    Fruits
    Fruit a 2-seeded drupe, small or sometimes large (in India), ellipsoid to bi-spherical; pyrenes cartilaginous to woody, ± plano-ellipsoid to laterally flattened spherical, usually with a very shallow crest from the point of attachment around the apex, eventually splitting and with grooves from point of attachment extending to lateral faces, scarcely bullate, rugulose or deeply furrowed; seeds with endosperm entire; testa very finely reticulate; embryo with radicle erect, almost straight or curved to a C-shape (according to the pyrene shape), cotyledons small, set parallel to ventral face of the seed.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs, scandent shrubs or sometimes lianes
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly evergreen but sometimes deciduous and restricted to apex of branches, paired or rarely ternate, petiolate or sometimes subsessile; blades typically coriaceous but less often chartaceous, glabrous or sometimes pubescent; domatia glabrous or pubescent or sometimes absent; stipules usually with a truncate base bearing a decurrent, slightly to very strongly keeled, sometimes foliaceous lobe or, less often, lanceolate to ovate and soon caducous, never with silky white hairs inside
    Flowers
    Flowers 4–5-merous, borne in sessile to pedunculate umbellate cymes, in pedunculate clearly branched cymes or very rarely solitary; bracts and bracteoles typically inconspicuous or occasionally conspicuous or sometimes (not in Africa) entirely enclosing developing inflorescence and eventually rupturing into 2 or more segments
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube broadly ellipsoid to almost hemispherical; limb a truncate to dentate rim, occasionally equalling the tube in length but often much shorter
    Corolla
    Corolla white to yellow; tube broadly cylindrical, mostly equal to the lobes in length or somewhat longer or shorter, inside usually with a ring of deflexed hairs or sometimes with hairs not restricted to a well-defined ring or absent, often pubescent at throat; lobes reflexed, often thickened towards apex and obtuse to acute, rarely acuminate-apiculate, very rarely apiculate
    Stamens
    Stamens set at corolla throat; filaments well developed; anthers lanceolate to narrowly ovate, attached shortly above base, reflexed
    Pistil
    Style long, slender, always exceeding corolla-tube, glabrous, sometimes narrowing at apex; stigmatic knob cylindrical, always longer than wide, occasionally flaired or somewhat narrowed at base, hollow to about mid-point, bifid or rarely deeply cleft at apex when mature; ovary 2-locular, each locule containing 1 ovule, attached to the upper 1/3 of the septum
    Disc
    Disk glabrous or pubescent
    Fruits
    Fruit a 2-seeded drupe, small (or sometimes large in India) ellipsoid to didymous; pyrenes cartilaginous to woody, ± ellipsoid and flattened on ventral face or laterally flattened-spherical, usually with a very shallow crest extending from point of attachment around apex which eventually splits and with grooves from point of attachment extending to lateral faces, scarcely bullate, rugulose or deeply furrowed
    Seeds
    Seeds with endosperm entire; testa very finely reticulate; embryo almost straight or curved to a C-shape (according to the pyrene shape); radicle erect; cotyledons small, parallel to ventral face of seed
    Figures
    Figs. 131/15, 17, 24, p. 752 & 132/23, p. 754.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    St.Helena

    Psydrax Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2010 Saw, L.G. [FRI 48217], Malaysia K000174351
    Brenan, J.P.M. [8070], Zambia 25127.000
    Troupin, G. [4273], Congo 3290.000

    First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 125 (1788)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in F.T.E.A., Rubiaceae: 892 (1991).
    • Bridson in Kew Bull. 40: 687–725 (1985)
    • in Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 190 (1834), pro parte.
    • A. Richard, Mém. Fam. Rubiac.: 110 (1830)
    • De Candolle, Prodr. 4: 476 (1830), pro parte.
    • Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 125, t. 26, fig. 2 (1778).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bridson in K.B. 40: 687–725 (1985)
    • in Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 190 (1834), pro parte
    • A. Rich., Mém. Fam. Rub.: 110 (1830), pro parte
    • DC., Prodr. 4: 476 (1830), pro parte
    • Fruct. & Sem. 1: 125, t. 26/2 (1778)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0