1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Pyrostria Comm. ex A.Juss.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Arabian Peninsula.

    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D. Bridson. Flora Zambesiaca 5:2. 1998

    Habit
    Small shrubs to medium-sized trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, less often subsessile or occasionally sessile; blades drying blackish-brown, slate-grey or less often dull green, typically subcoriaceous but occasionally chartaceous or coriaceous, usually glabrous, very infrequently pubescent; tertiary nerves obscure (or rarely apparent); domatia present as glabrous to pubescent cavities, or sometimes absent; stipules triangular at their base, sometimes produced into a lobe, or linear to ovate, persistent or readily caducous, with a few silky hairs and colleters inside.
    Flowers
    Flowers unisexual or hermaphrodite, 4- or 5-merous borne in pedunculate umbels, sometimes with both peduncle and pedicels somewhat reduced, in dioecious species the female inflorescence containing fewer flowers (often solitary) than the male; bracts paired, connate and entirely surrounding the inflorescences in bud, persistent, with silky hairs and colleters towards base inside.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube ± ovate in female and hermaphrodite flowers, and very reduced in male flowers; limb reduced to a rim, sometimes shortly dentate or bearing unequal lobes, or sometimes (in Mauritian species) cupular.
    Corolla
    Corolla rather fleshy, usually drying dark with the lobes pale above; tube shorter than or longer than the lobes, throat densely congested with crisped or less often straight moniliform hairs, lacking a well-defined ring of deflexed hairs inside; lobes spreading, reflexed or sometimes erect, thickened towards the the apex, sometimes shortly apiculate, upper surface of lobes usually graniculate or very finely colliculate.
    Stamens
    Stamens set at throat; filaments short, attached near the base of the anther; anthers erect, less often spreading or rarely reflexed, ovate to oblong-ovate, the dorsal face, except for the margin, covered with darkened connective tissue, sometimes extending into a short apiculum.
    Gynoecium
    Style slender, slightly longer than corolla tube, somewhat tapered at apex; pollen presenter as wide as long, 2–several-lobed, but lobes only separating to reveal stigmatic surface in female and hermaphrodite flowers, solid, attached to style at base or sometimes slightly recessed; disk annular or hemispherical; the region between the ovary and disk sometimes elongating (in Madagascan species only); ovary 2–10-locular, each loculus containing one pendulous ovule.
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow to red, fleshy, when 2-locular subspherical to obcordate in lateral view, or less often didymous, bilaterally flattened, often elaborated with extra lobes or flanges, when multi-locular lobes correspond to number of locules.
    Pyrene
    Pyrenes thinly woody to woody, ellipsoid to obovoid with ventral face flattened, crested around the apex, eventually dehiscing from the point of attachment back along the crest.
    Seeds
    Seeds narrowly obovoid with ventral area flattened and apex somewhat crested; endosperm entire; testa finely reticulate; embryo straight or slightly curved with radicle erect and cotyledons small and set perpendicular to ventral face of the seed.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Small shrubs to medium-sized trees
    Leaves
    Leaves not deciduous, petiolate, less often subsessile or occasionally sessile; blades drying blackish brown, slate-grey or sometimes dull green, typically subcoriaceous, usually glabrous, very infrequently pubescent; tertiary nerves obscure (or rarely apparent); domatia present as glabrous to pubescent cavities or sometimes absent; stipules triangular at base, sometimes produced into a lobe or ovate to linear, persistent or readily caducous, with a few silky hairs and colleters inside
    Flowers
    Flowers unisexual or hermaphrodite, 4- or 5-merous, borne in pedunculate umbels, sometimes with both peduncle and pedicels somewhat reduced, in dioecious species the ♀ inflorescence contains fewer flowers (often solitary) than the ♂; bracts paired, connate and entirely surrounding inflorescence in bud, persistent, with silky hairs and colleters towards base inside or rarely with dense rusty hairs
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube ± ovoid in ♀ and hermaphrodite flowers but very reduced in ♂ flowers; limb reduced to a rim, sometimes shortly dentate or bearing unequal or less often equal lobes or sometimes (in Mauritian species) cupular
    Corolla
    Corolla rather fleshy, usually drying dark with the lobes pale above; tube shorter than or longer than the lobes, throat densely congested with crisped or less often straight hairs, lacking a well-defined ring of deflexed hairs inside; lobes spreading, reflexed or sometimes ± erect, thickened towards the apex, sometimes shortly apiculate, upper surface of lobes usually graniculate or very finely colliculate
    Stamens
    Stamens set at throat; filaments short, attached near the base of the anther; anthers erect, less often spreading or rarely reflexed, ovate to oblong-ovate, the dorsal face, except for the margin, covered with darkened connective tissue, sometimes extending into a short apiculum
    Pistil
    Style slender, slightly longer than corolla-tube, somewhat tapered at apex; stigmatic knob ± as wide as long, 2–several-lobed, lobes only separating to reveal stigmatic surface in ♀ and hermaphrodite flowers, solid, attached to style at base or sometimes slightly recessed; ovary 2(–10 outside Africa)-locular, each locule containing one pendulous ovule
    Disc
    Disk annular or hemispherical; the area between the ovary and disc sometimes elongate (in Madagascan species only)
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow to red, fleshy; 2-locular fruit subspherical to heart-shaped or less often didymous, bilaterally flattened, often elaborated with extra lobes or wings; multilocular fruit lobed according to number of locules; pyrenes thinly woody to woody, narrowly obovoid to obovoid with ventral face flattened, crested around the apex, eventually dehiscing from the point of attachment back along the crest (fig. 132/22, p. 754)
    Seeds
    Seeds ± narrowly obovoid with ventral face flattened and apex somewhat crested; endosperm entire; testa finely reticulate; embryo straight or slightly curved with radicle erect; cotyledons small, set perpendicular to ventral face of seed.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Angola, Borneo, Cameroon, Comoros, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Oman, Philippines, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Socotra, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Pyrostria Comm. ex A.Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7385], Tanzania 31126.000
    Jeffrey, C. [473], Seychelles 24483.000
    Faulkner, H. [2462], Tanzania 6621.000
    Richardson, I. [4049], Mauritius 40022.000
    Richardson, I. [4041], Mauritius 40032.000
    Davis, A.P. [2182], Madagascar 61299.000
    Davis, A.P. [1164], Madagascar 61802.000
    Davis, A.P. [2155], Madagascar 63669.000
    Davis, A.P. [2134], Madagascar 63672.000
    Davis, A.P. [2131], Madagascar 63893.000
    Davis, A.P. [2273], Madagascar 63905.000
    Davis, A.P. [2169], Madagascar 62473.000
    Davis, A.P. [2131], Madagascar 70156.000
    Davis, A.P. [2709], Madagascar 72934.000
    Davis, A.P. [3166], Madagascar 76258.000
    Baker, W.J. [1040], Madagascar 73895.000
    Patel, H. [7252], Mozambique K000545213

    First published in Gen. Pl.: 206 (1789)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in F.T.E.A., Rubiaceae: 885–892 (1991).
    • Bridson in Kew Bull. 42: 611–630 (1987)
    • Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 37: 563 (1983).
    • Drake in Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris, nouv. sér. 6: 41 (1898).
    • K. Schumann in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. IV, 4: 94, fig. 33 H (1891).
    • Bentham & Hooker f., Gen. Pl. 2, 1: 111 (1873).
    • in Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 216 (1834).
    • A. Richard, Mém. Fam. Rubiac.: 136 (1830)
    • De Candolle, Prodr. 4: 464 (1830), pro parte majore.
    • Lamarck, Tabl. Encycl. 1, 2: 289 (1792).
    • Lamarck, Tabl. Encycl. 1, 1: t. 68 (1791)
    • Gen. Pl.: 206 (1789).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Verdc. in Fl. Masc. 108: 110–118 (1989)
    • Bridson in K.B. 42: 611 (1987)
    • Verdc. in K.B. 37: 563 (1983)
    • Hochr. in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 11 & 12: 96 (1908)
    • Drake in Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris, nouv. sér. 6: 41 (1898)
    • K. Schum. in E. & P. Pf. IV.4: 94, fig. 33H (1891)
    • Hook.f. in G.P. 2: 111 (1873)
    • in Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 216 (1834)
    • A. Rich., Mém. Fam. Rub.: 136 (1830)
    • DC., Prodr. 4: 464 (1830), pro parte majore
    • Lam., Tab. Encycl. 1: 289 (1792)
    • Lam., Tab. Encycl., t. 68 (1791)
    • Gen. Pl.: 206 (1789)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0