1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Vangueria Juss.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D. Bridson. Flora Zambesiaca 5:2. 1998

    Habit
    Deciduous shrubs or small trees, unarmed or rarely spiny, with glabrous to densely velvety foliage.
    Leaves
    Leaves paired, never whorled, often quite large; stipules broad and connate into a short sheath at the base, produced into a linear or subulate appendage at the apex, hairy inside, deciduous or more or less persistent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually many-flowered, in axillary, divaricately branched cymes at opposite sides of nodes, often at leafless nodes and sometimes flowering before leaves are fully developed; cyme branches ± elongate with regularly spaced shortly petiolate flowers.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube hemispherical or depressed campanulate; calyx limb divided into 5(6) triangular, oblong, linear or ligulate lobes.
    Corolla
    Corolla small, often distinctly apiculate in bud (due to lobe appendages); usually yellow or greenish-yellow; corolla tube shortly cylindrical or campanulate, glabrous or hairy outside, with a ring of deflexed hairs inside and densely hairy at the throat; lobes 5, narrowly triangular, mostly reflexed, sometimes each with a distinct narrow appendage at the apex.
    Anthers
    Anthers ovate or oblong, apiculate, shortly exserted.
    Ovary
    Ovary 5-locular; ovule solitary in each locule, pendulous.
    Gynoecium
    Style filiform-cylindrical, glabrous, shortly exserted; pollen presenter cylindrical, very shortly 5-lobed at the apex.
    Disc
    Disk annular, slightly raised.
    Fruits
    Fruit large, indehiscent and fleshy, ± globose, often lobed or angular in the dry state, (4)5(6)-locular, containing (4)5(6) pyrenes, sometimes bearing the remains of calyx lobes, glabrous, often edible.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Unarmed or rarely spiny deciduous shrubs or small trees with glabrous to densely velvety foliage
    Leaves
    Leaves paired, often quite large; stipules broad at base, hairy inside, connate into a short sheath at the base, produced into a linear or subulate appendage at the apex, deciduous or ± persistent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary divaricately branched cymes at opposite sides of nodes, usually many-flowered, often at leafless nodes and sometimes flowering when leaves are not fully developed; branches of cymes often rather elongate with regularly spaced shortly petiolate flowers
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube hemispherical or depressed campanulate; limb divided into 5 triangular, oblong, linear or ligulate lobes
    Corolla
    Corolla small, usually yellow or greenish yellow, often distinctly apiculate in bud (due to lobe appendages); corolla-tube shortly cylindrical or campanulate, glabrous or hairy outside, with a ring of deflexed hairs inside and densely hairy at the throat; lobes 5, narrowly triangular, mostly reflexed, sometimes with distinct narrow appendage at the apex
    Anthers
    Anthers ovate or oblong, apiculate, shortly exserted
    Pistil
    Ovary 5-locular; ovule solitary in each locule, pendulous; style filiform-cylindric, glabrous, shortly exserted; stigmatic club cylindrical, very shortly 5-lobed at the apex
    Disc
    Disk annular, slightly raised
    Fruits
    Fruit large, indehiscent and fleshy, ± globose, often lobed or angular in dry state, (4–)5(–6)-locular, containing (4–)5(–6) pyrenes, sometimes bearing remains of calyx-limb, glabrous, often edible.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D. Bridson. Flora Zambesiaca 5:2. 1998

    Habit
    Shrubs, slightly to much branched from a woody rootstock.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually opposite or sometimes in whorls of 3, shortly petiolate; stipules connate into a sheath below, densely hairy within, distinctly subulate-caudate at the apex, at least the base persistent.
    Flowers
    Flowers conspicuous, in few- to several-flowered simple or branched peduncled pubescent cymes; bracts small.
    Buds
    Buds elongate, ferruginous pubescent outside.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube campanulate; limb-tube very reduced; lobes 5, well-developed and distinctly leaf-like.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube cylindrical, elongate, slightly to distinctly curved, open and glabrous at the throat but with a ring of deflexed hairs inside just above the base, and some scattered long hairs elsewhere; lobes triangular-ovate, reflexed, much shorter than the corolla tube, appendaged.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the throat, the anther tips exserted.
    Pistil
    Ovary globose or semi-globose, 4–5-locular, each locule with a pendulous ovule; style slender, glabrous, shortly exserted; pollen presenter large, cylindrical, 4–5-lobed at the apex.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose or lobed when dry, fleshy, crowned with calyx lobes, containing up to 5 pyrenes.
    Pyrene
    Pyrenes thinly woody, smooth, scarcely crested around apex, truncate at point of attachment.
    Seeds
    Embryo with exceptionally long cotyledons.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Shrubs or one species a subshrubby herb, slightly to much branched
    Leaves
    Leaves usually opposite or in two species in whorls of 3, shortly petiolate; stipules connate into a sheath below, densely hairy within, distinctly subulate-caudate at the apex, at least the base persistent
    Flowers
    Flowers fairly conspicuous, solitary or in few several-flowered simple or branched peduncled pubescent to tomentose cymes; bracts small
    Buds
    Buds elongate, ferruginous or whitish tomentose or pubescent outside
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes 5, usually well developed and much longer than the tube, sometimes distinctly leafy, but in one species shortly triangular
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube cylindric, elongate, curved, open and glabrous at the throat but with a ring of deflexed hairs inside at base and some scattered long hairs elsewhere; lobes lanceolate, reflexed, much shorter than the corolla-tube
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the throat, the anthers slightly exserted
    Pistil
    Ovary globose or semi-globose, 4–5-locular, each locule with a pendulous ovule; style slender, glabrous, shortly exserted; stigmatic club large, cylindric or less often subcoroniform, 5-lobed at the apex
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow or red, globose, fleshy, crowned with calyx-limb, containing 5 pyrenes.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Herbs with stems from a woody rhizome, subshrubs, shrubs or even small trees, the foliage, inflorescences and young shoots characteristically covered with dense velvety tomentum
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3–4, subsessile or shortly petiolate, usually markedly discolorous; stipules connate below, drawn out to a linear apex, at length deciduous
    Flowers
    Flowers fairly small in subsessile to shortly pedunculate axillary dense usually opposite few–many-flowered ± globose cymes or 1–few-flowered fascicles; bracts and bracteoles present, often fairly conspicuous
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes 5, mostly erect and linear to linear-lanceolate, less often ovate to oblong-triangular
    Buds
    Buds apiculate
    Corolla
    Corolla green, yellow or white; tube cylindrical, glabrous, less often hairy at the throat, with a ring of reflexed hairs within; lobes reflexed, usually apiculate
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the throat, the anthers ± exserted
    Pistil
    Ovary 4–5(–6)-locular, with one pendulous ovule per locule; style slender, usually exserted; stigmatic club cylindric or coroniform, sulcate and 4–5-lobulate
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose, with 3–5 pyrenes, or oblique and reduced to 1 pyrene, mostly crowned by persistent calyx.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D. Bridson. Flora Zambesiaca 5:2. 1998

    Habit
    Suffrutescent herbs with stems from a woody rhizome, subshrubs, shrubs or small trees, the foliage, inflorescences and young shoots characteristically covered with a dense velvety tomentum.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3–4, subsessile or shortly petiolate, usually markedly discolorous; stipules connate in lower part, drawn out into a linear apex, eventually deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, dense, usually opposite with flowers few to many in ± globose cymes, or 1–few-flowered fascicles; bracts and bracteoles present, often fairly conspicuous.
    Flowers
    Flowers fairly small, but large in T. rhodesiacum, subsessile to shortly pedunculate.
    Calyx
    Calyx lobes 5, mostly erect and linear to linear-lanceolate, less often ovate to oblong-triangular.
    Corolla
    Corolla apiculate in bud; green, yellow or white, densely hairy outside; tube cylindrical, glabrous, occasionally hairy at the throat, with a ring of deflexed hairs within; lobes reflexed, usually apiculate.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the throat, the anthers ± exserted.
    Pistil
    Ovary 4–5(6)-locular with one pendulous ovule per loculus; style slender, usually exserted; pollen presenter cylindrical or coroniform, sulcate and 4–5-lobulate.
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose, usually crowned by persistent calyx, velvety or infrequently ± sparsely hairy, with 3–5 pyrenes, or fruit oblique and reduced to 1 pyrene.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Glabrous or velvety hairy shrubs or understorey trees or sometimes ± scandent
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate, mostly discolorous when dry; stipules subulate from a very short triangular base, soon falling
    Flowers
    Flowers small, pale-coloured, in few–many-flowered axillary cymes or terminating short lateral shoots; peduncles short and pedicels mostly elongate
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube subglobose; lobes 5, much longer than the tube and usually almost as long as or longer than the corolla-tube, elongate-spathulate or narrowly oblong-spathulate, obtuse
    Buds
    Buds elongate with cylindrical tube and clavate limb, 5-apiculate
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube narrowly cylindrical, inside glabrous or sparsely hairy at the throat but with a ring of deflexed hairs below middle; lobes 5, triangular-lanceolate, tailed at the apex, usually reflexed
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, inserted at the throat, the anthers short, usually completely exserted
    Pistil
    Ovary 5-locular; ovules solitary in each locule; style filiform, mostly distinctly exserted; stigmatic club cylindrical, 5-ribbed, the apex very shortly 2-lipped
    Fruits
    Fruit varying in shape according to number of pyrenes developed, asymmetically ellipsoid, pyriform or subglobose; pyrenes 1–5, with woody walls
    Figures
    Fig. 132/2, 3, p. 754.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D. Bridson. Flora Zambesiaca 5:2. 1998

    Habit
    Shrubs or understorey trees, or sometimes ± scandent, glabrous or velvety hairy, with or without spines.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate, mostly discolorous when dry; stipules subulate from a very short triangular base, soon falling.
    Flowers
    Flowers small, or large in one species, pale coloured, solitary or in opposite, few- to many-flowered lateral cymes; peduncles short and pedicels mostly elongate.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube subglobose; limb-tube ± absent; lobes 5, much longer than the tube and usually almost as long as or longer than the corolla tube (except in long-flowered species), elongate-spathulate, narrowly oblong-spathulate or oblong, obtuse.
    Corolla
    Corolla in bud elongate with a cylindrical tube and clavate limb, 5-apiculate; tube narrowly cylindrical, curved in long-flowered species, inside glabrous or sparsely hairy at the throat but with a ring of deflexed hairs below the middle; lobes 5, triangular-lanceolate, tailed at the apex, usually reflexed.
    Ovary
    Ovary 5-locular; ovules solitary in each cell.
    Gynoecium
    Style filiform, mostly distinctly exserted; pollen presenter cylindrical, 5-ribbed, the apex very shortly up to 5-lipped.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, inserted at the throat; anthers short, usually completely exserted.
    Fruits
    Fruit varying in shape according to number of pyrenes developed, asymmetrically ellipsoid, pyriform or subglobose; pyrenes 1–5, with woody walls.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Subshrubby herbs or small shrubs, glabrous or less often pubescent
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, rarely in whorls of 3, shortly petiolate; stipules connate, hairy within, often at length deciduous
    Flowers
    Flowers fairly small in axillary usually opposite cymes or fascicles, often few-flowered; bracts and bracteoles present
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes 5, triangular or linear, erect, obtuse, ± leafy, sometimes exceeding the corolla-tube
    Corolla
    Corolla green or greenish yellow to greenish white; tube cylindrical, with a ring of deflexed hairs inside and the throat usually slightly hairy; lobes reflexed, often apiculate
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the throat, the anthers exserted
    Pistil
    Ovary 3–5-locular with one pendulous ovule per locule; style slender, exserted, the stigmatic knob cylindrical, smooth or ± sulcate, obscurely 5-lobed
    Fruits
    Fruit globose or obovoid, with 2–5 pyrenes, crowned by the persistent calyx-limb
    Pyrene
    Pyrenes ± woody
    Figures
    Fig. 132/4, p. 754.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D. Bridson. Flora Zambesiaca 5:2. 1998

    Habit
    Subshrubby herbs or small shrubs, glabrous or less often pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, rarely in whorls of 3, shortly petiolate; stipules connate, hairy within, often at length deciduous.
    Flowers
    Flowers fairly small, in axillary usually opposite cymes or fascicles, often few-flowered; bracts and bracteoles present.
    Calyx
    Calyx lobes 5, linear to ovate, erect, obtuse, ± leaf-like, sometimes exceeding the corolla tube.
    Corolla
    Corolla apiculate to distinctly appendiculate in bud; green or greenish-yellow to greenish-white, glabrous or pubescent; tube cylindrical with a ring of deflexed hairs inside, and the throat usually slightly hairy; lobes reflexed, often apiculate.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the throat, the anthers exserted.
    Pistil
    Ovary 3–5-locular with one pendulous ovule per loculus; style slender, exserted, the stigma cylindrical, smooth or ± sulcate, obscurely 5-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose or obovoid with 2–5 pyrenes crowned by the persistent calyx limb.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, India, Leeward Is., New Caledonia, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Seychelles, Trinidad-Tobago

    Vangueria Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2014 Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132925
    Nov 14, 2002 Cheek, M. [B1403], Madagascar 62620.000
    Tanzania 29081.000
    Andrews, A. [1826], Sudan 3349.000
    Angus, A. [1034], Zambia 12223.000
    Brummitt, R.K. [8877], Malawi K000285730
    Renvoize, S.A. [2309], Tanzania 7356.000
    Davis, A.P. [2186], Madagascar 63661.000
    Hall-Martin, A.J. [1085], Malawi K000285728
    Hall-Martin, A.J. [1252], Malawi K000285729

    First published in Gen. Pl.: 206 (1789)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Robyns in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 11: 273 (1928).
    • —F.T.A. 3: 146, partly
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 36: 547–556 (1981).
    • Robyns in Bull. Jard. Bot. État 11: 273 (1928).
    • Gen. Pl.: 206 (1789).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Verdc. in K.B. 36: 547 (1981)
    • Robyns in B.J.B.B. 11: 273 (1928)
    • Gen. Pl.: 206 (1789)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0