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This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical Africa. It is used as a medicine, has environmental uses and for fuel.
Ricinus communis

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Varying from ephemeral less than 1 m high to tree-like herb 5(–10) m high with trunk to 15 cm thick
Morphology Stem
Stems hollow; young shoots often pruinose, purplish
Morphology Leaves
Petioles (4–)10–30 cm; leaf-blade up to 1 m across, (5–)7–9(–12)-lobed, usually divided more than halfway, middle lobe 7–30(–75) x 2–8(–20) cm, tip acuminate, glandular-serrate, lateral lobes progressively smaller; stipule sheath 1.3–2.7 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Raceme 10–30 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers: pedicels 5–17 mm; calyx-lobes 5–8 x (2–)3–5 mm, acute; stamens 7–8 mm long Female flowers: pedicels to 2–4.5 cm in fruit; sepals lanceolate, 5 mm long, acuminate; styles 2–5 mm long, usually red
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 10–18 x 10–15 mm, usually with softly spiny processes 3–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 7–12 x 5–8 x 4–6 mm, shiny silvery grey or beige marked with brown; caruncle 1–2 x 2–3 mm.
Distribution
Probably in all regions pantropical.
Vernacular
Balambal, bor (Somali), castor oil plant (English).

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada y naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 50 - 2650 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, arbolito

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Carapate, Cawapat, Higuera, Higuereta, Higuerilla, Higuerillo, Higuerillo blanco, Higuerillo rojo, Higuerito, Jieratapi, Masketi, Palm kristi

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Cultivated and naturalised in Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 50 - 2650 m.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub.
Vernacular
Jieratapi, palmachristis, cawapat, carapate, masketi, palma kristi.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
An erect, single-stemmed but often much-branched bushy or tree-like glabrous, ± glaucous annual or perennial herb commonly up to 5 m., but occasionally attaining 10 m.
Morphology Stem
Stems up to 12 cm. in diameter at the base, hollow, herbaceous but often becoming woody, pale bluish-green or reddish tinged.
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots often pruinose and purplish tinged.
Morphology Leaves
Petioles (4–)10–30 cm. long, usually smooth, rarely sparingly beset with small cylindrical papillae; petiolar glands discoid to turbinate, dark green; blades up to 1 m. across, (5–)7–9(–12)-lobed, usually more than halfway but occasionally less, the median lobe usually 7–30 cm. long and 2–8 cm wide, but occasionally up to 75 cm. long and 20 cm. wide, the lateral lobes being proportionately progressively smaller; lobes ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate, oblong or linear-oblong, acutely acuminate, coarsely and sometimes somewhat irregularly glandular-serrate, firmly membranaceous to thinly chartaceous, lateral nerves (15–)20–25 on the median lobe, progressively fewer on the lateral lobes, not prominent above, slightly so beneath, craspedodromous, dark olive-green above, paler beneath, midribs and nerves often reddish beneath.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipular sheath ovate, 1.3–2.7 cm. long, often reddish or purplish, soon cadu-cous, leaving a ± circular scar.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 10–30 cm. long; bracts lanceolate, ± 1 cm. long, green, reddish tinged; bracteoles smaller than the bracts, but otherwise similar.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers:pedicels 0.5–1.7 cm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, 5–8 mm. long, (2–)3–5 mm. wide, acute, pale green, often tinged reddish or purplish; stamens 7–8 mm. long, anthers 0.5 mm. long, pale yellow. Female flowers:pedicels 0.5–1 cm. long, extending to 2–4.5 cm. in fruit; sepals narrowly lanceolate, ± 5 mm. long, acutely acuminate, often reddish or purplish tinged; ovary trilobate-subglobose, 2 mm. long and wide; styles 2–5 mm. long, ± one-third bifid to almost completely bipartite, usually red, rarely yellowish.
sex Male
Male flowers:pedicels 0.5–1.7 cm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, 5–8 mm. long, (2–)3–5 mm. wide, acute, pale green, often tinged reddish or purplish; stamens 7–8 mm. long, anthers 0.5 mm. long, pale yellow.
sex Female
Female flowers:pedicels 0.5–1 cm. long, extending to 2–4.5 cm. in fruit; sepals narrowly lanceolate, ± 5 mm. long, acutely acuminate, often reddish or purplish tinged; ovary trilobate-subglobose, 2 mm. long and wide; styles 2–5 mm. long, ± one-third bifid to almost completely bipartite, usually red, rarely yellowish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit strongly trilobate, 1–1.8 cm. long, 1–1.5 cm. diameter, sparingly, evenly or densely beset with narrowly cylindric fleshy processes 3–5 mm. long, each tipped with a sharp curved bristle, bluish green, often tinged reddish or purplish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 7–12 mm. long, 5–8 mm. wide, 4–6 mm. deep, smooth, shiny, greyish, silvery or beige, usually variously streaked, mottled and flecked with olive-brown, chestnut or dark greyish brown; caruncle depressed-conic, 1–2 mm. long, 2–3 mm. across.
Habitat
Widely grown and readily naturalized in areas of moderate to good rainfall in frost-free areas; poisonous to stock; the ‘Castor Oil Plant’; sea-level–1900(–2590) m.
Distribution
± throughout tropical and extra-tropical Africa, and cultivated and naturalized ± throughout the warmer parts of the globe K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
An erect glabrous pruinose single-stemmed or bushy, tree-like herb up to 7 m high.
Morphology Stem
Stems up to 10 cm thick at base, hollow, becoming ± woody, grey.
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots often reddish-tinged.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petioles 4–30 cm long, or longer; glands discoid or turbinate.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf blades (5)7–11-lobed, 7–35(100) cm long and wide, with the median lobe 2–8(20) cm wide, and the lateral lobes progressively smaller; lobes ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely glandular-serrate, dark green on upper surface, paler beneath, the nerves yellowish; lateral nerves in 15–25 pairs on the median lobe.
Morphology Leaves Leaf sheaths
Stipular sheath up to 2.7 cm long, ovate, reddish or purplish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences 10–30 cm long; bracts c. 1 cm long, lanceolate; bracteoles similar, but smaller.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers: pedicels up to 1.7 cm long; calyx lobes 5–8 × 2–5 mm, ovate, acute, pale green, often purplish-tinged; stamens 7–8 mm long, anthers 0.5 mm long, pale yellow. Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 cm long, extending to 4.5 cm in fruit; sepals c. 5 mm long, lanceolate, acuminate, often purplish-tinged; ovary 2 mm long and wide, 3-lobed to subglobose; styles up to 7 mm long.
sex Male
Male flowers: pedicels up to 1.7 cm long; calyx lobes 5–8 × 2–5 mm, ovate, acute, pale green, often purplish-tinged; stamens 7–8 mm long, anthers 0.5 mm long, pale yellow.
sex Female
Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 cm long, extending to 4.5 cm in fruit; sepals c. 5 mm long, lanceolate, acuminate, often purplish-tinged; ovary 2 mm long and wide, 3-lobed to subglobose; styles up to 7 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 1–2.3 cm long and wide, strongly 3-lobed, smooth, or sparingly to densely beset with narrowly-cylindric bristle-tipped processes 3–6 mm long, bluish-green.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 7–21 × 5–15 × 4–8 mm, smooth, usually shiny, grey, silvery-white or beige, usually variously streaked, mottled, flecked or blotched with olive-brown, reddish-brown or brownish-black; caruncle 1–2 × 2–3 mm, depressed-conic.

[FSOM]
Use
The oil from the seeds has many recorded medicinal and industrial uses and is produced commercially. The plant itself contains a very dangerous toxin, a few molecules of which are capable of killing any cell into which they are introduced.

[UPB]
Use Environmental Ornamentals
Live plant (in situ) - Ornamental (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Environmental Boundary Barrier Support Plants
Live plant (in situ) - Used for barriers (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Environmental Revegetation
Live plant (in situ) - Used for ecological restoration (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Fuel
Used for fuel for aircraft turbines and brake fluid for cars (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Essential Oils
Used to make soap (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Materials Lipids (Fats And Oils)
Oil (Toscano-González 2006).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Circulatory System Disorders
Seeds - Seed oil is applied externally in the treatment of hemorrhoids (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Digestive System Disorders
Used as a laxative (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Sensory System Disorders
Seeds - Used for the eyes (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
Seeds - Seed oil used in the treatment of skin irritation (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Doubtfully present in:

Kenya

Native to:

Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Botswana, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Canary Is., Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Italy, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Korea, Leeward Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maldives, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique Channel I, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Selvagens, Senegal, Sicilia, Society Is., Socotra, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Zaïre

Spanish
Castor, palma cristi, rejalgar, ricino, higuerito, higuerillo, higuerilla, higuerillo rojo, higuerillo blanco, relajar, higuera, higuereta.

Ricinus communis L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 1, 2016 Muhd.Ariffin A.Kalat [19762], Brunei K001235193
Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [5973], Michoacán K000476981
Apr 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [3403], Cameroon K000338907
Apr 1, 1999 Zapfack, L. [784], Cameroon K000338906
Moult, P.H. [13], Ethiopia 36242.000
Langlassé, E. [950], Mexico K000503183
Gonzalez Ortega, J. [306], Mexico K000503182
Hinton, G.B. [4811], México State K000476983
Hinton, G.B. [5481], Guerrero K000476984
Philcox, D. [7695], Trinidad & Tobago K000716079
Kuhlmann, M. [117], Brazil K001206819
Philcox, D. [3796], Brazil K001206820
Carneiro Torres, D.S. [94], Brazil K001206825
Cope, T.A. [RBG 580], Great Britain K000914622
Philcox, D. [7695], Trinidad & Tobago K000716080
Heringer, E.P. [6262], Brazil K001206827
Silva, M.N. [248], Brazil K001206828
Balée, W.L. [930], Brazil K001206826
Hinton, G.B. [5973], Michoacán K000476982
Burchell [4682], Brazil K001206824
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001206817
Philcox, D. [3796], Brazil K001206823
Spruce [s.n.], Brazil K001206822
André [1242] K001206818
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001206821

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1007 (1753)

Accepted by

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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dufour-Dror, J.M. & Fragman-Sapir, O. in Dufour-Dror, J.M. (2019). Alien Plant Species in Natural & Disturbed Areas in Israel Alien Invasive Plants in Israel, ed. 2: 1-246. Dan Perry Pub., Nature & Parks Authority, Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lebrun, J.-P. (1998). Catalogue des plantes de la Mauritanie et du Sahara Occidental Boissiera 55: 1-322.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Urziceanu, M. & al. (2020). Updated list of non-native ornamental plants in Romania Contributii Botanice Universitatea "Babes-Bolyai" din Cluj-Napoca 55: 59-82.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. G. Gilbert [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 109 (1921).
  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 218 (1974).
  • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 55 (1936).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 96 (1952).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 203 (1962).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 225 (1949).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 410 (1958).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 1007 (1753).
  • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 1017 (1866).
  • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(11): 119 (1919).
  • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 240 (1895).
  • Prain in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 945 (1912).
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 238, t. 70/1 (1983).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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Kew Science Photographs
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Plants and People Africa
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Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
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