1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Tragia Plum. ex L.
      1. Tragia okanyua Pax

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to Northern Prov.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Diagnostic
    Similar to T. benthamii and T. brevipes, but with the leaf-blades ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate and usually ± distinctly subhastate to shallowly 3-lobed at the base, although some leaves may scarcely show a tendency to develop the 2 lateral lobes.
    Habitat
    Locally common along rivers, on termite mounds and secondary scrub in Brachystegia woodland, spreading into disturbed places; 360–990 m.
    Distribution
    T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A climbing urticating perennial herb, monoecious; stems up to 3 m long from a woody rootstock, twining (sometimes erect at first), sparingly to densely pubescent, hirsute and/or setose.
    Stipules
    Stipules (3)4–6 mm long, lanceolate, ciliate, otherwise ± glabrous, erect at first, soon spreading then becoming reflexed.
    Petiole
    Petiole 0.3–8(10) cm long, pubescent, hirsute and/or setose.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blade 1.5–11.5(14) × 0.5–6(10) cm, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, usually ± distinctly 3-lobed, shortly acutely or subacutely acuminate at the apex, serrate on the margins and often more coarsely so on the lateral lobes, widely cordate at the base, thinly chartaceous, 5(7)-nerved from the base, sparingly hirsute to subglabrous on the upper surface, evenly to sparingly pubescent beneath, and also setose along the midrib and main nerves on both surfaces; lateral nerves in 3–5 pairs, scarcely prominent above, somewhat prominent beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences up to 14 cm long, the peduncle up to 10 cm long, terminal or leaf-opposed, bisexual, with 1–2 female flowers at the base; male bracts 1.5–2 mm long, lanceolate or elliptic, ciliate, the lowermost sometimes 2-flowered; male bracteoles 1–1.5 mm long, linear-lanceolate; female bracts 3 mm long, ovate, dentate at the apex; female bracteoles resembling the male bracts.
    Flowers
    Male flowers: pedicels c. 1 mm long, puberulous; buds obovoid-subglobose; calyx lobes 1 × 1 mm, ovate, apiculate, sparingly pubescent without, glabrous within, greenish; stamens 3(4), c. 1 mm long, anthers yellow; pistillode trifid, minutely puberulous. Female flowers: pedicels 1 mm long, extending to 3 mm long in fruit; calyx lobes 6, rarely fewer, ± equal, 2 × 1 mm, accrescent to 6–8 × 5–7 mm, each lobe 9–13-lobulate on the margins, the lobules linear-lanceolate, usually longer than the width of the calyx-lobe rhachis, densely white-setose, green, the calyx-lobe rhachis linear to lanceolate, sparingly pubescent and setose without, ± glabrous within, becoming indurated, yellow, becoming stramineous; ovary 1 mm in diameter, 3-lobed, sparingly setose; styles 3, 1.5–2 mm long, ± erect, connate at the base, subglabrous, stigmas ± smooth, straight at first, later recurved, green.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels c. 1 mm long, puberulous; buds obovoid-subglobose; calyx lobes 1 × 1 mm, ovate, apiculate, sparingly pubescent without, glabrous within, greenish; stamens 3(4), c. 1 mm long, anthers yellow; pistillode trifid, minutely puberulous.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 1 mm long, extending to 3 mm long in fruit; calyx lobes 6, rarely fewer, ± equal, 2 × 1 mm, accrescent to 6–8 × 5–7 mm, each lobe 9–13-lobulate on the margins, the lobules linear-lanceolate, usually longer than the width of the calyx-lobe rhachis, densely white-setose, green, the calyx-lobe rhachis linear to lanceolate, sparingly pubescent and setose without, ± glabrous within, becoming indurated, yellow, becoming stramineous; ovary 1 mm in diameter, 3-lobed, sparingly setose; styles 3, 1.5–2 mm long, ± erect, connate at the base, subglabrous, stigmas ± smooth, straight at first, later recurved, green.
    Fruits
    Fruit 5 × 8–9 mm, 3-lobed, smooth, sparingly setose on the keels, yellow-green.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 4 mm in diameter, ovoid-subglobose, greyish, lightly flecked and mottled with reddish-brown, and with scattered circular patches fringed with papillae.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Nettle spurge, Stinging nettle

    Tragia okanyua Pax appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bull. Herb. Boissier 6: 735 (1898)

    Accepted by

    • Radcliffe-Smith, A. & Hoffmann, P. (2006 publ. 2007). New records, names and combinations in African Euphorbiaceae sensu lato Kew Bulletin 61: 609-611.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 105 (1921).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(9): 78 (1919).
    • Prain in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 986 (1913).
    • Pax in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6: 735 (1898).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/