1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Tragia Plum. ex L.
      1. Tragia tenuifolia Benth.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to South Sudan and Zimbabwe.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A weakly urticating climbing subshrub with sparingly puberulous stems, monoecious.
    Stipules
    Stipules 3–4 × 1–1.5 mm, ovate-lanceolate, acute, subglabrous, ciliate.
    Petiole
    Petioles 1–7.5 cm long, sparingly puberulous and stinging-setose.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blade 4–14 × 1–5 cm, elliptic-oblong to elliptic-oblanceolate, shortly acutely acuminate at the apex, subentire to shallowly and remotely denticulate on the margins, subtruncate to cordate at the base, membranaceous, 5–9-nerved from the base, sparingly pubescent and setose on the upper surface, and sparingly hirsute and setose along the midrib and main nerves beneath; lateral nerves in 4–6 pairs, slightly prominent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 2–3 cm long, with the peduncle 1.5–2.5 cm long, leaf-opposed, bisexual, densely flowered; male bracts 2 mm long, oblong, subglabrous; male bracteoles 1 mm long, subulate; female bracts 3 mm long, ovate; female bracteoles resembling the male bracts.
    Flowers
    Male flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 mm long; buds obovoid-turbinate; calyx lobes 1 × 1 mm, broadly ovate-suborbicular, apiculate, subglabrous; stamens 0.5 mm long; pistillode trigonous, depressed-conic. Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 mm long; calyx lobes 6, 2 mm long, accrescent to 5 mm long in fruit, spathulate, with 3 small linear subglabrous green lobules on each side, a terminal ovate foliaceous laminula, and a strap-shaped rhachis pubescent and greenish without, glabrous and stramineous within, becoming slightly hardened; ovary 2 mm in diameter, 3-lobed, uniformly densely pubescent, setose on the keels; styles 3, 2 mm long, connate to halfway, ± glabrous, stigmas shallowly rugulose, tightly coiled.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 mm long; buds obovoid-turbinate; calyx lobes 1 × 1 mm, broadly ovate-suborbicular, apiculate, subglabrous; stamens 0.5 mm long; pistillode trigonous, depressed-conic.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 mm long; calyx lobes 6, 2 mm long, accrescent to 5 mm long in fruit, spathulate, with 3 small linear subglabrous green lobules on each side, a terminal ovate foliaceous laminula, and a strap-shaped rhachis pubescent and greenish without, glabrous and stramineous within, becoming slightly hardened; ovary 2 mm in diameter, 3-lobed, uniformly densely pubescent, setose on the keels; styles 3, 2 mm long, connate to halfway, ± glabrous, stigmas shallowly rugulose, tightly coiled.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3–4 × 7–8 mm, 3-lobed, evenly pubescent, sparingly setose on the keels.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 3 mm in diameter, globose, silvery-grey, streaked with beige and mottled chestnut-brown.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A creeping or scandent, pubescent, hirsute, setose and urticating perennial herb up to 3 m. high when supported, otherwise shorter.
    Leaves
    Petiole (0.5–)1–5 cm. long, pubescent and hirsute; blade elliptic-ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 4–10(–12) cm. long, 2–5 cm. wide, shortly acutely acuminate, shallowly to moderately cordate, subentire to shallowly serrate or dentate, membranaceous, 7-nerved from the base, lateral nerves 3–5 pairs, evenly to sparingly setose above and beneath, more densely so along the midrib and main nerves, or occasionally subglabrous except along the midrib.
    Stipules
    Stipules erect, later reflexed, lanceolate, 5–6.5 mm. long, acute, setose without, ± glabrous within.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences leaf-opposed, lateral or ± axillary, 1.5–3 cm. long, fairly densely flowered, with a pubescent peduncle 1–1.5 cm. long; ♂ bracts oblanceolate, 2.5–3 mm. long, entire or subentire, sparingly pubescent; ♀ bracts deeply trilobate, 5 mm. long, otherwise ± as ♂; bracteoles 2, resembling ♂ bracts.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 1–2 mm. long; calyx-lobes 3, suborbicular to broadly ovate, ± 1 mm. long and wide, slightly cucullate, pubescent without, glabrous within, greenish; stamens 0.5 mm. long, filaments stout, anthers 0.3 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, yellow; pistillode minute, depressed-conic.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicel very short, stout; calyx-lobes 6, spathulate, 4 mm. long, extending to 9 mm. long in fruit, the rhachis pinnately lobulate, with 3–4 linear lobules on each side, and with an ovate-deltate foliaceous terminal laminula, pubescent without, puberulous within, and beset with white urticating bristles on the margins; ovary trilobate, ± 3 mm. diameter, evenly pubescent and sparingly beset with urticating bristles; styles 3, 3 mm. long, incurved, fused for one-third their length, pubescent in the lower third, otherwise glabrous, stigmatic surfaces rugulose. Male flowers:pedicels 1–2 mm. long; calyx-lobes 3, suborbicular to broadly ovate, ± 1 mm. long and wide, slightly cucullate, pubescent without, glabrous within, greenish; stamens 0.5 mm. long, filaments stout, anthers 0.3 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, yellow; pistillode minute, depressed-conic.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicel very short, stout; calyx-lobes 6, spathulate, 4 mm. long, extending to 9 mm. long in fruit, the rhachis pinnately lobulate, with 3–4 linear lobules on each side, and with an ovate-deltate foliaceous terminal laminula, pubescent without, puberulous within, and beset with white urticating bristles on the margins; ovary trilobate, ± 3 mm. diameter, evenly pubescent and sparingly beset with urticating bristles; styles 3, 3 mm. long, incurved, fused for one-third their length, pubescent in the lower third, otherwise glabrous, stigmatic surfaces rugulose.
    Fruits
    Fruit strongly trilobate, 5 mm. long, 9 mm. diameter, evenly pubescent, sparingly setose, dull green, mottled brown.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4 mm. diameter, dark reddish brown, mottled pale greyish or silvery.
    Habitat
    On forest edges, in clearings and undergrowth; 1190–1220 m.
    Distribution
    from Guinée and Sierra Leone eastwards to Sudan (Equatoria), Zaire (Orientale, Kivu) and south to Cabinda (Loango) and Zimbabwe U2 U4
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Stems twining
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish, the female calyx-lobes with white stinging hairs.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burkina, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Tragia tenuifolia Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2010 Cheek, M. [11865], Cameroon K000678394
    Jan 1, 1849 Mann [834], Sierra Leone K000425701
    Jan 1, 1849 Barter [511], West Tropical Africa K000425702
    Zenker [88], Cameroon K000425698
    Bagshawe [727], Cameroon K000425699

    First published in W.J.Hooker, Niger Fl.: 502 (1849)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barberá, P., Velayos, M. & Aedo, C. (2013). Annotated checklist and identification keys of the Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Phytotaxa 140: 1-25.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 9: 96.
    • — -F.T.A. 6, 1: 973
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Barberá, P., Velayos, M. & Aedo, C. (2013). Annotated checklist and identification keys of the Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Phytotaxa 140: 1-25.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Challen, G. (2010-). Personal communication on Euphorbiaceae 2 [K].
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 412 (1958).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 470 (1948).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 107 (1921).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147 (9): 96 (1919).
    • Prain in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 973 (1913).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 945 (1866).
    • Benth. in Hook. f., Niger Fl.: 502 (1849).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0