1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Thesium L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, Southern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Santalaceae, P.M. Polhill, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S.. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Shrubs or herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile, alternate, oblong, linear or reduced to scales, 3-nerved
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary and terminal, solitary or in cymules; bracts generally conspicuous, often adnate to the pedicel or peduncle; bracteoles 2–several, persistent
    Perianth
    Perianth leathery; tube campanulate to cylindrical, often with evident glands below the sinuses of the lobes, sometimes tooth-like; lobes (3–)5, valvate, glabrous or variously fringed or bearded, the tips often hooded
    Stamens
    Stamens as many as the lobes, inserted on or at the base of the lobes; anthers in East African species attached to the lobes by a tuft of hairs
    Disc
    Disk developed to varying degrees, fleshy, lobed, lining the perianth tube
    Pistil
    Ovary with 3 ovules pendent from apex of a free-central placenta, the placenta straight or twisted; style usually evident, simple
    Fruits
    Fruit usually shortly stipitate, indehiscent, globose or ovoid, usually bony, 10-ribbed and ± reticulate between the ribs, or less often fleshy, crowned with the persistent perianth.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Bracts
    Bract often conspicuous, often adnate to pedicel or peduncle; bracteoles 2–several, all persistent
    Ovary
    Ovary with 3 ovules pendant from apex of erect free-central placenta; placenta straight or twisted; stigma capitate; style wanting to well developed, simple, cylindric. Fruit indehiscent, globose or ovoid, usually bony, 10-ribbed, ± reticulate between ribs, crowned with a persistent perianth, subtended by a stipe.
    Note
    In his classification, Hill emphasized the ornamentation on the perianth lobes; a revised classification should take into account the structure of the inflorescence, as has already been suggested by Robyns & Lawalrée (in Bull. Jard. Bot. État 17: 137 (1944)). Many of the species are poorly known; field work is needed, not only to augment collections, but also to study the impact of fire on growth patterns. The possibility of hybridization should also not be overlooked. All the species in the Flora Zambesiaca area have the anthers attached to the perianth lobes by a tuft of hairs and therefore belong in sections Imberbia and Barbata of A.W. Hill (in Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1915: 10 (1915), and F.C. 5, 2: 137, 140 (1915)). Hendrych (in Nov. Bot. Hort. Bot. Univ. Carol. Prag.: 17 (1962)) amended Hill's infrageneric classification, partly for nomenclatural reasons. As he was largely concerned with European and Asian species and did not deal with African species in general, no infrageneric classification is used here. In any case a thorough revision of all the species is needed first.
    Distribution
    Over 300 species, all in the Old World, many in Africa.
    Habit
    Shrubs or herbs. Shrubs or herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile, alternate, in the Flora Zambesiaca area mostly linear or reduced to scales, ± oblong in one species, triplinerved. Leaves sessile, alternate, in the Flora Zambesiaca area mostly linear or reduced to scales, ± oblong in one species, triplinerved
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary and terminal, solitary or in cymules in the axils of the bracts. Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary and terminal, solitary or in cymules in the axils of the bracts
    Bracteoles
    Bract often conspicuous, often adnate to pedicel or peduncle; bracteoles 2–several, all persistent.
    Perianth
    Perianth leathery; tube campanulate to cylindric, often with conspicuous external glands below the sinuses of the perianth lobes, sometimes with tooth-like glands alternating with the lobes; lobes usually 5, rarely 4 or 3, valvate, glabrous or variously fringed or bearded, tips hooded. Perianth leathery; tube campanulate to cylindric, often with conspicuous external glands below the sinuses of the perianth lobes, sometimes with tooth-like glands alternating with the lobes; lobes usually 5, rarely 4 or 3, valvate, glabrous or variously fringed or bearded, tips hooded
    Stamens
    Stamens as many as lobes, inserted on or at base of lobes, in the Flora Zambesiaca species anthers attached to lobes by tuft of hairs. Stamens as many as lobes, inserted on or at base of lobes, in the Flora Zambesiaca species anthers attached to lobes by tuft of hairs
    Disc
    Disk often well developed, fleshy, lobed, lining perianth tube. Disk often well developed, fleshy, lobed, lining perianth tube
    Pistil
    Ovary with 3 ovules pendant from apex of erect free-central placenta; placenta straight or twisted; stigma capitate; style wanting to well developed, simple, cylindric.
    Fruits
    Fruit indehiscent, globose or ovoid, usually bony, 10-ribbed, ± reticulate between ribs, crowned with a persistent perianth, subtended by a stipe.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central European Rus, China South-Central, Chita, Congo, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hungary, India, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tibet, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alberta, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota

    Thesium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 207 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 411.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 21: 2 (1969).
    • Roessler in Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 21: 2 (1969).
    • F.C. 5, 2: 136 (1915).
    • Hill in F.C. 5, 2: 136 (1915).
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 411 (1911).
    • Baker & Hill in F.T.A. 6, 1: 411 (1911).
    • Bentham in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3, 1: 221 (1880).
    • Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3, 1: 221 (1880).
    • A. de Candolle in de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 637 (1857).
    • de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 637 (1857).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 97 (1754).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 97 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 207 (1753)
    • Sp. Pl.: 207 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 97 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 207 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0