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This genus is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical America, Old World.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Genus of more than 200 species in the Old World, the majority in Africa.
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or small shrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, linear to lanceolate or scale-like
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in spikes, racemes or panicles, bisexual, 4–5-merous, on short branches subtended by 1 bract and 2 bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary inferior with capitate stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a nut, sometimes with a fleshy outer layer, crowned by the persistent perianth.

[FTEA]

Santalaceae, P.M. Polhill, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S.. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, alternate, oblong, linear or reduced to scales, 3-nerved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary and terminal, solitary or in cymules; bracts generally conspicuous, often adnate to the pedicel or peduncle; bracteoles 2–several, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth leathery; tube campanulate to cylindrical, often with evident glands below the sinuses of the lobes, sometimes tooth-like; lobes (3–)5, valvate, glabrous or variously fringed or bearded, the tips often hooded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens as many as the lobes, inserted on or at the base of the lobes; anthers in East African species attached to the lobes by a tuft of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk developed to varying degrees, fleshy, lobed, lining the perianth tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary with 3 ovules pendent from apex of a free-central placenta, the placenta straight or twisted; style usually evident, simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit usually shortly stipitate, indehiscent, globose or ovoid, usually bony, 10-ribbed and ± reticulate between the ribs, or less often fleshy, crowned with the persistent perianth.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bract often conspicuous, often adnate to pedicel or peduncle; bracteoles 2–several, all persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary with 3 ovules pendant from apex of erect free-central placenta; placenta straight or twisted; stigma capitate; style wanting to well developed, simple, cylindric. Fruit indehiscent, globose or ovoid, usually bony, 10-ribbed, ± reticulate between ribs, crowned with a persistent perianth, subtended by a stipe.
Note
In his classification, Hill emphasized the ornamentation on the perianth lobes; a revised classification should take into account the structure of the inflorescence, as has already been suggested by Robyns & Lawalrée (in Bull. Jard. Bot. État 17: 137 (1944)). Many of the species are poorly known; field work is needed, not only to augment collections, but also to study the impact of fire on growth patterns. The possibility of hybridization should also not be overlooked. All the species in the Flora Zambesiaca area have the anthers attached to the perianth lobes by a tuft of hairs and therefore belong in sections Imberbia and Barbata of A.W. Hill (in Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1915: 10 (1915), and F.C. 5, 2: 137, 140 (1915)). Hendrych (in Nov. Bot. Hort. Bot. Univ. Carol. Prag.: 17 (1962)) amended Hill's infrageneric classification, partly for nomenclatural reasons. As he was largely concerned with European and Asian species and did not deal with African species in general, no infrageneric classification is used here. In any case a thorough revision of all the species is needed first.
Distribution
Over 300 species, all in the Old World, many in Africa.
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or herbs. Shrubs or herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, alternate, in the Flora Zambesiaca area mostly linear or reduced to scales, ± oblong in one species, triplinerved. Leaves sessile, alternate, in the Flora Zambesiaca area mostly linear or reduced to scales, ± oblong in one species, triplinerved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary and terminal, solitary or in cymules in the axils of the bracts. Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary and terminal, solitary or in cymules in the axils of the bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bract often conspicuous, often adnate to pedicel or peduncle; bracteoles 2–several, all persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth leathery; tube campanulate to cylindric, often with conspicuous external glands below the sinuses of the perianth lobes, sometimes with tooth-like glands alternating with the lobes; lobes usually 5, rarely 4 or 3, valvate, glabrous or variously fringed or bearded, tips hooded. Perianth leathery; tube campanulate to cylindric, often with conspicuous external glands below the sinuses of the perianth lobes, sometimes with tooth-like glands alternating with the lobes; lobes usually 5, rarely 4 or 3, valvate, glabrous or variously fringed or bearded, tips hooded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens as many as lobes, inserted on or at base of lobes, in the Flora Zambesiaca species anthers attached to lobes by tuft of hairs. Stamens as many as lobes, inserted on or at base of lobes, in the Flora Zambesiaca species anthers attached to lobes by tuft of hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk often well developed, fleshy, lobed, lining perianth tube. Disk often well developed, fleshy, lobed, lining perianth tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary with 3 ovules pendant from apex of erect free-central placenta; placenta straight or twisted; stigma capitate; style wanting to well developed, simple, cylindric.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit indehiscent, globose or ovoid, usually bony, 10-ribbed, ± reticulate between ribs, crowned with a persistent perianth, subtended by a stipe.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New South Wales, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alberta, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota

Thesium L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 207 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 411.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle in de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 637 (1857).
  • Baker & Hill in F.T.A. 6, 1: 411 (1911).
  • Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3, 1: 221 (1880).
  • Bentham in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3, 1: 221 (1880).
  • F.C. 5, 2: 136 (1915).
  • F.T.A. 6, 1: 411 (1911).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 97 (1754).
  • Hill in F.C. 5, 2: 136 (1915).
  • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 21: 2 (1969).
  • Roessler in Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 21: 2 (1969).
  • Sp. Pl.: 207 (1753)
  • de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 637 (1857).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 97 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 207 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0