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This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa, SE. China to Tropical Asia.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, usually dioecious, usually spiny; young branches glabrous to pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with the blade usually ovate to elliptic, 2.5–12 x 2–8 cm, obtusely acuminate to rounded at the apex, glabrous to pubescent, serrate-crenate to subentire, with 4–7 pairs of lateral nerves; petiole up to 20 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers sometimes solitary; pedicels up to 5 mm; disk lobed, clasping the base of the ovary; styles spreading Male flowers in racemes 0.5–2 cm long; pedicels up to 1 cm long; sepals broadly ovate, 1.5–2.5 mm long, pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globose, reddish when ripe, up to 2.5 cm across, with persistent styles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 8–10 x 4–7 mm.
Ecology
Altitude c. 20 m.
Distribution
S3 East Africa, widespread in tropical Africa and eastwards to S Asia and Malesia

[FTEA]

Flacourtiaceae, H. Sleumer (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, generally spiny, up to 10 m. tall; bark rough; spines of the trunk sometimes branched, up to 12 cm. long.
Morphology General Indumentum
Vegetative parts varying from glabrous to densely pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves also variable in shape and size; blade ovate or elliptic, sometimes suborbicular or obovate, apex obtusely acuminate, obtuse or rounded, base cuneate to rounded, membranous to almost coriaceous, serrulate-crenate, or more rarely subentire, 2.5–12(–16) cm. long, 2–8 cm. broad; lateral nerves 4–7 pairs, slightly prominent on both faces, as is the ± dense reticulation; petiole up to 2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers dioecious, or occasionally bisexual (1 or several branches of a ♀ specimen with perfect flowers, which, however, bear fewer stamens than in the ♂ ones). Male flowers in axillary racemes 0.5–2 cm. long; pedicels slender, ± pubescent, up to 1 cm. long, the basal bracts minute and caducous. Female flowers in short racemes or solitary; pedicels up to 5 mm.
sex Male
Male flowers in axillary racemes 0.5–2 cm. long; pedicels slender, ± pubescent, up to 1 cm. long, the basal bracts minute and caducous. Sepals broadly ovate, apex acute to rounded, pubescent on both sides, 1.5–2–5 mm. long and broad. Filaments 2–2.5 mm. long; anthers 0.5 mm. long. Disk lobulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals broadly ovate, apex acute to rounded, pubescent on both sides, 1.5–2–5 mm. long and broad.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments 2–2.5 mm. long; anthers 0.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk lobulate, clasping the base of the ovoid ovary. Disk lobulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Styles 4–8, central, connate at the base, spreading, up to 1.5 mm. long; stigmas truncate.
sex Female
Styles 4–8, central, connate at the base, spreading, up to 1.5 mm. long; stigmas truncate. Female flowers in short racemes or solitary; pedicels up to 5 mm. Disk lobulate, clasping the base of the ovoid ovary.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globular, reddish to reddish black when ripe, fleshy, up to 2.5 cm. across, with persistent styles, up to 10-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 8–10 mm. long, 4–7 mm. broad; testa rugose, pale brown.
Figures
Fig. 20.
Habitat
Woodland, wooded grassland and bushland, often riparian; 0–2400 m.
Distribution
K2 K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 widespread in tropical and subtropical Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Seychelles, also in Asia and Malesia, sometimes cultivated for its edible though acid fruits, or escaped from cultivation

[FZ]

Flacourtiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree up to 10 m. tall, with the bark rough and yellowish or orange-brown, occasionally silvery on young branches; axillary straight spines present or absent on the branches, sometimes with fearsome branching spines up to 12 cm. long on the trunk near the base or with very spiny coppice shoots.
Morphology General Indumentum
All the vegetative parts except the older branches vary from quite glabrous to densely pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 2.5–12 x 1.3–7.5 cm., very variable, membranous or coriaceous, suborbicular, ovate, elliptic, obovate or ovate-elliptic, apex rounded, obtusely or rarely obtusely acuminate at the apex, base usually cuneate, occasionally rounded, margins crenate, crenate-serrulate or subentire, nerves in 4–7 pairs, slightly prominent above and below, venation laxly reticulate; petiole up to 1.3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers dioecious or occasionally bisexual in short axillary racemes or occasionally solitary in the axils; peduncles very short; rhachis up to 2 cm. long, ± pubescent; pedicels up to 1 cm. long, ± pubescent, with caducous, deltoid, pubescent bracts at the base. Female flowers with a lobulate, fleshy, glabrous disk clasping the base of the ovary; ovary ovoid, glabrous; styles 4–8, 0.5–1.5 mm. long, spreading, longitudinally grooved above; stigmas truncate. Bisexual flowers similar to the female but with c. S stamens. Male flower with very numerous stamens on filaments c. 2.5 mm. long, often with lobulate, glabrous glands forming a disk around the outer stamens.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 1.5–2.5 x 1.5–2.5 mm., imbricate, united for about 1 mm. at the base, broadly ovate, acute or rounded at the apex, pubescent on both sides.
sex Male
Male flower with very numerous stamens on filaments c. 2.5 mm. long, often with lobulate, glabrous glands forming a disk around the outer stamens.
sex Female
Female flowers with a lobulate, fleshy, glabrous disk clasping the base of the ovary; ovary ovoid, glabrous; styles 4–8, 0.5–1.5 mm. long, spreading, longitudinally grooved above; stigmas truncate.
sex Hermaphrodite
Bisexual flowers similar to the female but with c. S stamens.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit reddish or reddish-black when ripe, up to 2.5 cm. in diam., fleshy, globose, becoming sulcate when dry, glabrous, with persistent styles, up to 10-seeded or thereabouts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 8 x 7 mm., obovoid and somewhat flattened; testa pale brown, rugose.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol

>

[FSOM]
Use
Sometimes cultivated for its fruits that are edible though acid.

Native to:

Aldabra, Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Angola, Bahamas, Chad, Dominican Republic, Hawaii, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Réunion, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago

Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 1, 1994 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000231254 holotype
May 1, 1994 Kerr, A.F.G. [1700], Thailand K000591192 holotype
May 1, 1994 Kerr, A.F.G. [1700], Thailand K000591193 isotype
Jan 1, 1973 Pichi-Sermolli, R. [2039], Ethiopia K000231255 Unknown type material
Jan 1, 1957 Erens, J. [422], Botswana K000489295
Jan 1, 1957 Erens, J. [422], Botswana K000489296
Jan 1, 1957 Shantz, H.L. [390], Botswana K000489294
Jan 1, 1957 Son, G. van [28842], Botswana K000489297
Nov 1, 1953 Cole [47], Tamil Nadu K000591204
Nov 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu K000591203
Nov 1, 1953 Tsang, W.T. [425], Hainan K000591209 isotype
Nov 1, 1953 Balansa, B. [3165], Vietnam K000591195
Nov 1, 1953 Thorel, M. [9049] K000591194
Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.] K000591205
Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [13/0] K000591206
Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.] K000591208
Milne-Redhead, E. [10699], Tanzania 16190.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [2790A], Zambia 21814.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [10699], Tanzania 35450.000
McWhirter, J. [145], Madagascar 32208.000
Davis, A.P. [APD 2513], Madagascar 64177.000
Smith, P.A. [1787], Botswana K000489298
Harris, T. [139], Mozambique K000545119
Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000614805
Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124496
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124497
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124490
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124491
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124492
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124493
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124494
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124495
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124481
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124482
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124483
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124486
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124477
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124478
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124479
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124480
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124484
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124485
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124487
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124488
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124489

First published in Interpr. Herb. Amboin.: 377 (1917)

Accepted by

  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Toyama, H. & al. (2013). Inventory of the woody flora in Permanent plats of Kampong Thom and Kompong Chhnang provinces, Cambodia Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 64: 45-105.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae) Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Sleumer, H. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Flacourtiaceae: 1-68.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Bamps, P. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Flacourtiaceae (1): 1-61. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Chakrabarty, T. (2010). The family Flacourtiaceae in Sikkim state, India - A synopsis Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 785-787.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae) Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 3: 141, Addenda (1970).
  • Bamps in Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Flacourt.: 48 (1968).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 265 (1962).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 226 (1961).
  • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 286, t. 47/B (1960).
  • Palgrave, Trees Centr. Afr.: 189, photo. & t. (1957).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 148 (1952).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 231 (1949).
  • Gilg in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 21: 440, fig. 201 (1925).
  • Merrill, Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amboina: 377 (1917).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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