1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Schwenckia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Southern America and Northern America..

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubby or small trees; hairs simple with eglandular or glandular heads
    Leaves
    Leaves usually alternate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences manyflowered monochasial racemose or lax paniculate cymes, axillary or terminal subtended by small bracts, pedunculate; flowers solitary or in pairs or triplets, actinoor slightly zygomorphic; pedicels usually erect, occasionally deflexed in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular to campanulate, with 5 calyx lobes, often unequal
    Corolla
    Corolla tube narrow and straight, rarely curved, broadening into 5 complex small lobes which often 3- or 2lobed usually alternating with 5 clavate appendages
    Stamens
    Stamens didynamous or reduced to two with two or three staminodes; filaments fused to corolla tube at different levels, filiform or compressed, becoming thicker at point of fusion, glabrous or pilose; fertile anthers ovoid or narrowly ellipsoid, always ventrifixed, dehiscing extrosely, thecae often unequal, staminodes devoid of vestigial anthers
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid, glabrous, 2-locular, ovules numerous; disc annular or cupulate; style filiform, glabrous, usually exserted; stigma capitate or discoidal, inconspicuous
    Fruits
    Fruit a smooth, globose to ovoid, many-seeded capsule, bivalvate with entire smooth valves, usually longer than persistent fruiting calyx
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, small, reticulate.
    Note
    Linnaeus (1764) unintentionally described the genus as Schwenkia, while giving the binomial Schwenckia americana after the generic description, leading to the frequent mis-spelling of this generic name (cf. Heine, 1963). Variously considered to be composed of between 5 and 30 species, Hunziker (2001) considered the genus to consist of around 25 species, which occur from Central America and the Antilles to NE Argentina. The type species S. americana L. is the commonest species and now occurs as a widespread weed throughout tropical Africa.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, or in clusters, petiolate or sessile, entire Leaves alternate, or in clusters, petiolate or sessile, entire.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes few–many-flowered, terminal, usually laxly paniculiform, occasionally reduced to one flower; pedicels slender Cymes few–many-flowered, terminal, usually laxly paniculiform, occasionally reduced to one flower; pedicels slender.
    Flowers
    Flowers somewhat zygomorphic Flowers somewhat zygomorphic.
    Calyx
    Calyx shorter than the corolla tube, tubular or campanulate, 4(5)-lobed, not or slightly enlarged in fruit; lobes subequal, short, claviform, with valvate aestivation Calyx shorter than the corolla tube, tubular or campanulate, 4(5)-lobed, not or slightly enlarged in fruit; lobes subequal, short, claviform, with valvate aestivation.
    Corolla
    Corolla tubular or elsewhere sometimes saccate, violet to reddish, yellowish or white; tube elongate, narrow but often slightly dilated at the anther-level, not expanded at the throat, sparingly pubescent on the lower third inside; limb small, plicate, oblique, 5-lobed or -dentate, occasionally 2-lipped; lobes claviform to setaceous, sometimes emarginate, overlapping in bud, with valvate or slightly contorted aestivation, sometimes with alternating appendages Corolla tubular or elsewhere sometimes saccate, violet to reddish, yellowish or white; tube elongate, narrow but often slightly dilated at the anther-level, not expanded at the throat, sparingly pubescent on the lower third inside; limb small, plicate, oblique, 5-lobed or -dentate, occasionally 2-lipped; lobes claviform to setaceous, sometimes emarginate, overlapping in bud, with valvate or slightly contorted aestivation, sometimes with alternating appendages.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4(5), didynamous, or 2, equal, inserted one-third to above the middle of the corolla tube, included or rarely exserted; filaments filiform, sometimes flattened, often tape-like below, pubescent to the base or glabrous, partially adnate to the inner surface of the corolla tube; anthers all or only 2 fertile, ovate to linear in outline, coherent or connate, ventrifixed, the 2 unequal, ± parallel thecae dehiscing by longitudinal slits, and separated from each other for their lower quarter; staminodes 0–3, equal, tapering
    Disc
    Disk small, annular or cupular Disk small, annular or cupular.
    Ovary
    Ovary subsessile, 2-locular; ovules several–many in each locule, on a fleshy axile placenta, anatropous.
    Style
    Style filiform or compressed slightly dilated at the apex.
    Stigma
    Stigma punctiform or slightly capitate, exserted or included
    Fruits
    Fruit capsular, ± globose or ovoid, apiculate, dry, smooth or rugulose, 2-valved, septicidally dehiscent Fruit capsular, ± globose or ovoid, apiculate, dry, smooth or rugulose, 2-valved, septicidally dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds several to numerous, minute, ± prismatic, sometimes flattened on one side; testa somewhat leathery, minutely striate with tubercles in rows, or smooth, glabrous; embryo straight in the abundant endosperm, with the radicle often as wide as the cotyledons Seeds several to numerous, minute, ± prismatic, sometimes flattened on one side; testa somewhat leathery, minutely striate with tubercles in rows, or smooth, glabrous; embryo straight in the abundant endosperm, with the radicle often as wide as the cotyledons.
    Habit
    Erect, ascending or sprawling usually herbaceous plants, glabrous or pubescent. Erect, ascending or sprawling usually herbaceous plants, glabrous or pubescent
    Androecium
    Stamens 4(5), didynamous, or 2, equal, inserted one-third to above the middle of the corolla tube, included or rarely exserted; filaments filiform, sometimes flattened, often tape-like below, pubescent to the base or glabrous, partially adnate to the inner surface of the corolla tube; anthers all or only 2 fertile, ovate to linear in outline, coherent or connate, ventrifixed, the 2 unequal, ± parallel thecae dehiscing by longitudinal slits, and separated from each other for their lower quarter; staminodes 0–3, equal, tapering.
    Pistil
    Ovary subsessile, 2-locular; ovules several–many in each locule, on a fleshy axile placenta, anatropous; style filiform or compressed slightly dilated at the apex; stigma punctiform or slightly capitate, exserted or included.
    Distribution
    A genus with 22 species from Central America and the Antilles southwards to NE Argentina, one species also widespread in Africa.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia

    Schwenckia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [54586], Brazil K001073570
    Feb 6, 2001 Silva, M.A. [2499], Brazil K001073566
    Feb 5, 2001 Pirani, J.R. [CFSC 6905], Brazil K001073571
    Jan 1, 1990 Irwin, H.S. [22543], Brazil K001073565
    Jan 1, 1976 Harley, R.M. [17008], Brazil K001073569
    Harley, R.M. [24104], Brazil K001073576
    Harley, R.M. [24103], Brazil K001073577
    Bautista, H.P. [797], Brazil K001073568
    Guedes, M.L. [PCD 5447], Brazil K001073574
    Rodal, M.J.N. [287], Brazil K001073575
    Claussen, P. [s.n.], Brazil K001073573
    Brooks, R.R. [592], Brazil K001073567
    Andrade, W.M. [120], Brazil K001073572

    First published in Gen. Pl. ed. 6: 577 (1764)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Heine in Kew Bull. 16: 465 (1963).
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 20, as Schwenkia Linn.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 93 (2001).
    • Kew Bull. 16: 465 (1963).
    • Heine in Kew Bull. 16: 465 (1963).
    • Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1: 21, 102 (1804).
    • emend. Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1: 21, 102 (1804).
    • Schwenckia L., Gen. Pl., ed. 6: 577 (1764) as “Schwenkia”
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 6: 577 (1764) as “Schwenkia”
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Solanaceae: 93 (2001)
    • Rodriguesia 44: 307–524 (1978);
    • K.B. 16: 465–469(1963);
    • "Gen. Pl. ed. 6: (“567”) 577 (1764), as “Schwenkia"""

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/