1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Alopecurus L.
      1. Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Europe to Medit. and Central Asia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 20-80 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-5 mm long. Leaf-blades 3-16 cm long; 2-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; rough adaxially, or on both sides.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; tapering above; 2-12 cm long; 0.3-0.6 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes connate along margins below; similar; reaching apex of florets. Lower glume lanceolate, or oblong; 4.5-7 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged narrowly; winged above; 3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein ciliolate. Lower glume surface pubescent; hairy below. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate, or oblong; 4.5-7 mm long; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged above; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliolate. Upper glume surface pubescent; hairy below. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 4.5-7 mm long; membranous; keeled; 4 -veined. Lemma margins connate below. Lemma apex obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.1-0.2 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 8-14 mm long overall; clearly exserted from spikelet; with twisted column. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 3-4 mm long. Stigmas protogynous; terminally exserted; pubescent. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform. Disseminule comprising a spikelet.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia. North America: northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, and south-central USA. South America: southern South America.
    Reference
    Aveneae. CEH.
    Diagnostic
    Glumes connate for 0.33-0.5 their length.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Assam, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Great Britain, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, California, Central European Rus, Chile South, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Germany, Hungary, Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Mississippi, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, North Carolina, Northwest European R, Norway, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Poland, Primorye, Rhode I., Sardegna, Senegal, South Australia, South Carolina, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tasmania, Texas, Ukraine, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia

    Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Fleischer [s.n.], Turkey K000913454
    Fleischer [s.n.], Turkey K000913455
    Fleischer [s.n.], Turkey K000913457
    Sintenis, P. [83] K000913458
    Lindley, J. [146] K000913456
    Post, G.E. [s.n.], Syria K000913459
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 422], United Kingdom K000914540

    First published in Fl. Angl.: 23 (1762)

    Accepted by

    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama Castanea 77: 257-269.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [B] © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [C] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0