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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Anthoxanthum L.
      1. Anthoxanthum ecklonii (Nees ex Trin.) Stapf

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Malawi to S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets 5.5-7 mm. long (excluding the awns!), oblong-lanceolate in outline, pallid.
    Glume
    Inferior glume c. 3.5 mm. long, 1-nerved, ovate when expanded, apex acute to acuminate, keels scabrous; superior glume 5-6.75 mm. long, 3-nerved, with the nerves close together thus leaving wide hyaline flanks, ovate when expanded, apex very acute to acuminate, keel scabrous.
    Lemma
    First and second lemmas golden yellow with silvery apices, covered with white sericeous hairs, keels scaberulous; the first c. 3.25 mm. long with the awn c. 1/3-1/2 the length of the body; the second c. 2.75 mm. long, with the awn up to twice as long as the body. Anthers of the first (male) floret c. 2.8 mm. long. Terminal lemma 2-3.5 mm. long, almost invisibly 5-nerved. Anthres c. 3.25 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis c. 1.75 mm. long.
    Habit
    A strongly aromatic rhizomatous perennial.
    Culms
    Culms 12-75 cm. tall, 2-4-noded, erect or ascending from a decumbent base, simple or rarely branched from the lower nodes, terete, weak, rather slender, smooth, glabrous.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths shorter than the internodes, rather tight at first, striate, smooth or reversedly scaberulous; the basal ones often with the laminas reduced to scales.
    Ligules
    Ligules 2-5 mm. long, scarious, whitish, obtuse, fringed with short cilia.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae 1-15 x 0.1-0.9 cm., linear or linear-lanceolate from a slightly auricled base, tapering to a very fine acute point, expanded or folded (usually towards the apex), glabrous or rarely scattered pilose, usually ciliate along the margins towards the base, finely asperulous on both surfaces.
    Inflorescences
    Panicles 2-9 cm. long, narrow, linear-oblong in outline, compact but sometimes interrupted in the lower part, shiny, pale green; rhachis terete, often sulcate towards the base, smooth, glabrous; branches binate or solitary, rarely in clusters, ascending to almost erect and appressed to the rhachis, glabrous, smooth.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels short, with short spreading whitish hairs.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose; clumped loosely, or moderately. Rhizomes elongated. Culms 35-80 cm long; swollen at the base; forming an ovoid corm. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 7-25 cm long; 4-9 mm wide; aromatic.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear, or oblong; 4-13 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 6-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 6-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 4.5-5 mm long; 0.75 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 6-8 mm long; 1.7-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute; mucronate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets dissimilar; male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 5 mm long; 1.3 length of fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 5 -veined; pubescent; lobed; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of lower sterile floret dorsal; 2 mm long. Lemma of upper sterile floret oblong; 1 length of lower sterile floret; chartaceous; pubescent; lobed; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of upper sterile floret dorsal; geniculate; 6-7 mm long. Fertile lemma orbicular; 3.5-4 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma; 1 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 2. Stigmas 2; protogynous; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Africa: southern tropical and south.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Gr S Afr 1993.
    [KBu]

    Mashau A. C. 2016. A synopsis of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Poeae) in southern Africa and description of a new subspecies. Kew Bulletin 71:18. DOI 10.1007/S12225-016-9629-6

    Type
    Type: South Africa, Western Cape, ""Cape Good Hope""." Type: South Africa, Kwazulu-Natal, 2829 (Bergville): Cathedral Peak Forest Research Station (–CD), 17 Nov. 1950, D. J. B. Killick 1132 (holotype PRE!).
    Habit
    Loosely or densely tufted perennial 350 – 800 mm high; rhizomatous; base of culm usually bulbous Loosely tufted perennial 300 – 430 mm high; rhizomatous
    Leaves
    Leaf blade 70 – 250 × 4 – 9 mm, expanded or folded, tapering to a very fine acute point Leaf blade 60 – 150 × 1.5 – 4.5 mm, expanded or folded
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence spike-like, 40 – 130 mm long Inflorescence contracted, spike-like, 35 – 90 mm long
    Spikelets
    Spikelet 6 – 8 mm long; glumes acute to acuminate, glabrous or scabrid on the backs, keels scaberulous; lower glume 5 – 6 mm long, 1-nerved, hyaline; upper glume 6 – 8 mm long, 3-nerved (rarely 1-nerved), sub-hyaline, longer than and enfolding the spikelet; lower lemma 5 mm long, pale to light brown, usually sparsely hairy; upper floret lemma 2.0 – 2.4 mm long, glabrous, awnless; anther 2.0 – 2.3 mm long. Spikelet 5.2 – 6.5 mm long; glumes unequal, acute to acuminate, glabrous, keels scaberulous; lower glume 3.5 – 4.0 mm long, 1-nerved; upper glume 5.2 – 6.5 mm long, 3-nerved; lower lemma sparsely hairy; lowest lemma 3.5 – 4.5 mm long, pale to light brown, awned from ± ½ – 2/3 as long as lemma body; second lemma 3.5 – 4.5 mm long, awned from ± 1/3 as long as lemma body; upper floret lemma 1.5 – 2.0 mm long, glabrous, awnless; anther 1.5 mm long (Fig. 1).
    Distribution
    known only from the broad arc of drakensberg covering the surroundings of bergville in the northern side, then south to impendle and underberg (kzn) (map 1). frequency in southern africa. infrequent but fairly widespread. possibly malawi. lesotho, south africa: mpumalanga, free state, kwazulu-natal, eastern cape and western cape.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated. Least Concern (LC) (Fish & Victor 2005).
    Phenology
    Flowering time: Nov. to Feb. Flowering Dec. to April.
    Ecology
    Anthoxanthum ecklonii subsp. natalense is associated with the Drankensberg Foothill Moist Grassland (Mucina & Rutherford 2006). Plants grow abundantly on mud islands in streams below waterfalls. The area is characterised by mudstones and sandstones of the Tarkastad] Subgroup and the Molteno Formation (Karoo Supergroup) as well as intrusive dolerites of the Jurassic age. Usually in moist places such as stream sides and on grassy mountain slopes, extending to forest margins.
    Note
    Anthoxanthum derived from the Greek word ‘anthos’ meaning flower; ‘xanthos’ means yellow, referring to the yellow-green mature spikelets. The species epithet ‘ecklonii’ is in honour of Christian Frederick Ecklon (1795 – 1868) German-born South African apothecary and plant collector. The word ‘natalense‘ denotes the origin of the subspecies, collected from Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Anthoxanthum ecklonii subsp. natalense is similar to A. ecklonii subsp. ecklonii. Both subspecies have glumes with keels scaberulous and lower lemma sparsely hairy, but they differ in a number of characters as summarised in Table 1. Resembles Anthoxanthum odoratum, which has the lower lemma shorter (3.0 – 3.5 mm long), dark brown and densely hairy.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Northern Provinces

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Anthoxanthum ecklonii (Nees ex Trin.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000345007

    Bibliography

    First published in W.H.Harvey & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 7: 466 (1899)

    Accepted by

    • Mashau, A.C. (2016). A synopsis of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Poeae) in southern Africa and description of a new subspecies Kew Bulletin 71(18): 1-5.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin

    • Victor, J. E., Fish, L. & Ellis, R. P. (2007). Anthoxanthum brevifolium Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.Google Scholar
    • Mucina, L. & Rutherford, M. C. (2006). The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19.Google Scholar
    • Fish, L. & Victor, J. E. (2005). Anthoxanthum dregeanum (Nees) Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.Google Scholar
    • Fish, L. (2000). Poaceae (Gramineae). In: O. A. Leistner, Seeds plants of southern Africa: families and genera, Strelitzia 10: 659 – 726.Google Scholar
    • Gibbs Russell, G. E., Watson, L., Koekemoer, M., Smook, L., Barker, N. P., Anderson, H. M. & Dallwitz, M. J. (1990). Grasses of southern Africa, Mem. Bot. Surv. South Africa 58.Google Scholar
    • Stapf, O. (1910). Diagnoses africanae: XXXIV. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1910(2): 59.Google Scholar
    • Stapf 1899: 466
    • Stapf, O. (1899). Gramineae. Flora capensis 7: 465 – 468. Lovell Reeve, London.Google Scholar
    • Nees ab Esenbeck, C. G. D. (1841). Florae Africanae australioris illustrationes monographicae. Prausnitz, Glogau.Google Scholar
    • Trinius, C. B. (1839). Phalaridea. Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 3 (3): 78 – 84.Google Scholar
    • Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm.Google Scholar

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0