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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Anthoxanthum L.
      1. Anthoxanthum tongo (Trin.) Stapf

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Western Cape Prov.

    [KBu]

    Mashau A. C. 2016. A synopsis of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Poeae) in southern Africa and description of a new subspecies. Kew Bulletin 71:18. DOI 10.1007/S12225-016-9629-6

    Type
    Type: South Africa, Western Cape, ""Cape Good Hope""."
    Habit
    Straggling or loosely tufted perennial 100 – 400 mm high; culm very fine; occasionally mat-forming
    Leaves
    Leaf blade 20 – 100 (– 170) × 2 mm, flat or folded, filiform to setaceous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence small, up to 35 mm long, oblong, contracted or reduced to a scanty raceme, with very few spikelets
    Spikelets
    Spikelet 5 – 7 mm long; glumes acute, glabrous or pilose on the back; lower glume up to 5 mm long, 3 – 5-nerved; upper glume 5 – 7 mm long, 3-nerved, longer than and enfolding the spikelet; lower lemma ± 4 mm long, creamy white to light brown, densely hairy; upper floret lemma 1.8 – 2.3 mm long, glabrous, awnless; anther 2.5 – 3.2 mm long.
    Distribution
    frequency in southern africa. locally common. endemic. south africa: western cape.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC) (Fish & Victor 2005).
    Note
    Flowering Sept. to Feb.
    Ecology
    In moist shady places in the shelter of rocks and in shallow crevices.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming, or caespitose. Culms decumbent, or rambling; weak; 10-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform; 2-10(-17) cm long; 1-2 mm wide; aromatic.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, or composed of racemes; comprising 3-30 fertile spikelets. Panicle contracted; linear, or oblong; 1-3.5 cm long; bearing few spikelets. Racemes single; lanceolate; paucilateral; 1-2 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 4.5 mm long; 0.75 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute; mucronate. Upper glume oblong; 5-7 mm long; 2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets dissimilar; barren (or lower male); without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 4-5 mm long; 2 length of fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 5 -veined; pubescent; lobed; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of lower sterile floret dorsal; 2-4 mm long. Lemma of upper sterile floret oblong; 1 length of lower sterile floret; chartaceous; pubescent; lobed; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of upper sterile floret dorsal; geniculate; 10-13 mm long. Fertile lemma orbicular; 2.5 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma; 1 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 2. Stigmas 2; protogynous; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Africa: south.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Gr S Afr 1993.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Anthoxanthum tongo (Trin.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Zeyher [4564], South Africa K000345003
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000367499
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000367502
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000345001
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000345002
    Wolley-Dod, A.H. [3484], South Africa K000367500

    Bibliography

    First published in W.H.Harvey & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 7: 466 (1899)

    Accepted by

    • Mashau, A.C. (2016). A synopsis of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Poeae) in southern Africa and description of a new subspecies Kew Bulletin 71(18): 1-5.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin

    • Victor, J. E., Fish, L. & Ellis, R. P. (2007). Anthoxanthum brevifolium Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.Google Scholar
    • Mucina, L. & Rutherford, M. C. (2006). The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19.Google Scholar
    • Fish, L. & Victor, J. E. (2005). Anthoxanthum dregeanum (Nees) Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.Google Scholar
    • Fish, L. (2000). Poaceae (Gramineae). In: O. A. Leistner, Seeds plants of southern Africa: families and genera, Strelitzia 10: 659 – 726.Google Scholar
    • Gibbs Russell, G. E., Watson, L., Koekemoer, M., Smook, L., Barker, N. P., Anderson, H. M. & Dallwitz, M. J. (1990). Grasses of southern Africa, Mem. Bot. Surv. South Africa 58.Google Scholar
    • Stapf, O. (1910). Diagnoses africanae: XXXIV. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1910(2): 59.Google Scholar
    • (Trin.) Stapf 1899: 467
    • Stapf, O. (1899). Gramineae. Flora capensis 7: 465 – 468. Lovell Reeve, London.Google Scholar
    • Nees ab Esenbeck, C. G. D. (1841). Florae Africanae australioris illustrationes monographicae. Prausnitz, Glogau.Google Scholar
    • Trinius, C. B. (1839). Phalaridea. Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 3 (3): 78 – 84.Google Scholar
    • Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm.Google Scholar

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0