1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Aristida L.
      1. Aristida barbicollis Trin. & Rupr.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia and S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    Perennial, 20-65 cm. high, usually glaucous, densely caespitose.
    Culms
    Culms erect or ascending, slender, simple or branched from the lower nodes, somewhat wiry, distinctly compressed, especially below, usually glabrous, sometimes slightly scaberulous, 3-4-noded; nodes glabrous, smooth.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths more or less keeled, tight or lax, glabrous or somewhat scaberulous.
    Ligules
    Ligule densely short-ciliolate; auricles usually long-barbate; collar laterally barbate, more or less glabrous on the back.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae up to 10(20) cm. long, narrowly linear, conduplicate or convolute, fairly rigid, curved or flexuous, with a rather obtuse apex, with somewhat thickened marginal nerves, scabrous or hispidulous above, glabrous and smooth beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle variable in shape and size, usually 15 x 5-10 cm., open, ovate to oblong, with several more or less spreading branches having spikelets congested towards the ends, forming often false spikes; axis erect or flexuous, terete, glabrous, smooth below, more or less subangular, scaberulous in the upper part; branches solitary or 2-nate, distant, scaberulous, naked for 1-6 cm. in the lower part.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets greenish, usually tinged with purple.
    Glume
    Glumes keeled, subhyaline, 1-nerved; the inferior usually 5-5.5 mm. long, lanceolate, scaberulous on the keel and laterally towards the apex, usually gradually tapering into a short awn c. 0.8-2 mm. long; the superior c. 6.5-8 mm. long, narrowly lanceolate, usually smooth on the keel, awned or deeply 2-fid at the apex with a c. 1 mm. long awn from the sinus and sometimes with well-developed narrow lateral lobes.
    Lemma
    Lemma 3.5-4.5 mm. long, sometimes mottled with purple, glabrous below, scabrous towards the apex; callus c. 1 mm. long, usually subacute, densely barbate; column of the awns c. 2.5 mm. long, twisted, scaberulous; awns 11-25 mm. long, subequal or the central one somewhat longer up to 30 mm., slender, scaberulous, more or less spreading; articulation between the apex of the column and the base of the awns.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial; culms 20–90 cm. high, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 3–20 cm. long, folded or convolute; sheaths compressed, glabrous, the lower strongly keeled, the auricles bearded or not.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ovate, 7–20 cm. long, open, the spikelets crowded into dense bushy spikes at the ends of the main branches.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets mostly grey or purple; glumes unequal, lanceolate, scaberulous on the keel and sometimes also on the flanks, the lower 3–7 mm. long, the upper 7–11 mm. long, both with a short awn-point up to 2 mm. long; lemma terete, 4–5 mm. long, scabrid upwards; callus linear, 1–1.5 mm. long, finely obtuse at the tip; column 2–4 mm. long, articulated just below the branching point of the awns; awns 12–28 mm. long, stiff, ± spreading.
    Figures
    Fig. 50, p. 158.
    Habitat
    Deciduous bushland and open places; sea-level to 1800 m.
    Distribution
    southwards to the Cape K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 20-90 cm long. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking, or bearded. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades curled; conduplicate, or involute; 3-20 cm long; 1-3 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough adaxially. Leaf-blade apex obtuse.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 7-20 cm long; with spikelets clustered towards branch tips. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 7-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1-1.5 mm long; pubescent; obtuse.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 7-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1-1.5 mm long; pubescent; obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 3-7 mm long; 0.4-0.6 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Lower glume apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 0.8-2 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 7-11 mm long; 1.8-2.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 1 mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; subterete; 4-5 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma surface scabrous; rough above. Lemma margins involute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn 3-branched; with 12-28 mm long limb; with twisted column; deciduous; abscissing from top of column. Column of lemma awn 2-4 mm long. Lateral lemma awns 12-28 mm long; subequal to principal. Palea 0.1 length of lemma; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Aristideae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Cape Provinces, Chad, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Aristida barbicollis Trin. & Rupr. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 1937 Burke [210], South Africa K000366771
    Bidgood, S. [5290], Tanzania K000190520
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000366768
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000366769
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000366770
    Lommel [2455], Tanzania K000366778 syntype

    First published in Sp. Gram. Stipac.: 152 (1842)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Trin. & Rupr., Sp. Gram. Stip.: 152 (1842).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0