1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Aristida L.
      1. Aristida congesta Roem. & Schult.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Dry parts of Africa, Madagascar.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    Perennial, up to 75(90) cm. high, densely caespitose.
    Culms
    Culms erect or geniculate, simple or branched from the lower or upper nodes, rather wiry, nearly terete, glabrous, smooth, 3-4-noded; nodes glabrous, smooth.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths slightly compressed, striate, glabrous or scaberulous upwards, the lower ones strongly keeled, with margins more or less overlapping at the base, the upper sometimes slightly keeled, tight.
    Ligules
    Ligule a short-ciliolate rim; auricles barbate or glabrous; collar glabrous or minutely pubescent or somewhat barbate.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae up to 20 cm. long, linear, conduplicate to convolute, usually flat at the base, acuminate, fairly rigid and more or less curved, scabrous or hispidulous above, glabrous and smooth beneath, with the margins not thickened.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle up to 20(25) cm. long, dense, contracted, spiciform, often interrupted towards the base, sometimes with 1 or 2 subspicate more or less spreading branches at the base; axis subterete, scaberulous; branches short, solitary, much divided from the base, usually appressed, slightly compressed, scaberulous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets densely fascicled, purplish or greenish.
    Glume
    Glumes unequal, subhyaline; the inferior 4-8 mm. long, lanceolate, scabrous or scaberulous on the keel and often minutely scaberulous on margins towards the apex, often abruptly contracted at the apex, with a short awn, 1-4 mm. long; the superior 5-9 mm. long, narrower, scaberulous on the keel towards the apex, with a short awn 1-3 mm. long.
    Lemma
    Lemma 4-6 mm. long, tubular, scabrid, finely tuberculed, coarsely scabrid towards the apex; callus 1-1.5 mm. long, acute or acuminate, shortly barbate; column up to 4-6 mm. long, twisted, scabrous or scaberulous; awns subequal, up to 12-25(30) mm. long, scabrous, more or less divergent; articulation between the apex of the column and the base of the awns.
    Cytology
    2n = 22.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms 10-75 cm long. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking, or bearded. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades conduplicate, or convolute; 2-20 cm long; 1-2 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; oblong; 3-20 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 6.5-10 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1 mm long; pilose; truncate.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 6.5-10 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1 mm long; pilose; truncate.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 4-5 mm long; 0.5-0.6 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scaberulous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 2 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 6.5-10 mm long; 1.6-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scaberulous. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 2 mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; subterete; 4-5 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma surface scabrous; rough above. Lemma margins involute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn 3-branched; with 12-30 mm long limb; with twisted column; deciduous; abscissing from top of column; limb scabrous. Column of lemma awn 2-4 mm long. Lateral lemma awns 12-30 mm long; subequal to principal. Palea 0.1 length of lemma; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia.
    Reference
    Aristideae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial; culms 10–75 cm. high, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 2–20 cm. long, folded or convolute; sheaths compressed, glabrous, the lower strongly keeled, the auricles bearded or not.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle dense, bushy, spike-like, 3–20 cm. long, occasionally with 1 or 2 subspicate peduncled branches at the base.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets tinged with grey or purple; glumes unequal, lanceolate, scaberulous on the keel and sometimes also on the flanks, the lower 4–5 mm. long, the upper 6.5–10 mm. long, both with a short awn-point up to 2 mm. long; lemma terete, 4–5 mm. long, scabrid upwards; callus linear, ± 1 mm. long, narrowly truncate at the tip; column 2–4 mm. long, articulated just below the branching point of the awns; awns 12–30 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Deciduous bushland, often on stony slopes or open eroded places; 1500–2100 m.
    Distribution
    eastern Africa from the Mediterranean to the Cape K3 K4 K6 K7 T2 T5

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Saudi Arabia, Yemen

    Aristida congesta Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Carvalho [s.n.], Mozambique K000366796 Unknown type material
    Cosson, M. M. E [s.n.], Tunisia K000366819
    Appleton, A. F. [26], Zimbabwe K000366797
    Appleton, A. F. [17], Mozambique K000366798
    Cosson, M. M. E. et. al. [s.n.], Tunisia K000366818
    Cosson, M. M. E. et. al. [s.n.], Tunisia K000366820

    First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 401 (1817)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook. A concise guide to Ascension Island South Atlantic ed. 2 Packer, Georgetown.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook. A concise guide to Ascension Island South Atlantic ed. 2 Packer, Georgetown.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2: 401 (1817).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/