1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Aristida L.
      1. Aristida meridionalis Henrard

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely caespitose perennial; culms 1–2 m. high, the internodes glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrow, involute, up to 50 cm. long and 5 mm. wide, with a flake of wool at the auricles; sheaths glabrous or sometimes woolly.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle large, effuse, up to 80 cm. long, lax and often nodding.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets light brown or purplish; glumes unequal; lower glume lanceolate, 5–7 mm. long; upper glume linear-lanceolate, 10–15 mm. long; lemma terete, 7–9 mm. long, glabrous, mottled with purple, articulated at the apex; callus 1–2 mm. long, broadly linear, 2-toothed or emarginate at the tip; column 5–15(–18) mm. long; awns subequal, up to 5 cm. long.
    Habitat
    Wooded grassland, in bare places with sandy soils; 1300 m.
    Distribution
    T4 southwards to the Cape
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    Perennial, up to 2 m. high, very robust, densely caespitose.
    Culms
    Culms erect, simple or slightly branched, glabrous, 2-3-noded; nodes often dark-coloured, glabrous.
    Leaf sheaths
    Lower leaf-sheath glabrous or woolly, afterwards becoming glabrous, the upper ones glabrous, smooth, somewhat loose.
    Ligules
    Ligule a short-citiate rim; auricles barbate, with a tuft of woolly hairs; collar glabrous.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae up to 50 x 0·5 cm., involute, scabrous above, glabrous, smooth beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle up to 80 cm. long and over 20 cm. wide, effuse, very lax, often nodding, many-flowered, with smooth axis; branches 2-3-nate with filiform branchlets.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets yellowish, yellowish-brown or tinged with purple.
    Glume
    Glumes unequal, 1-nerved, glabrous; the inferior 5-7 mm. long, obtuse or emarginate, slightly ciliate upwards along the margins; the superior 10-15 mm. long, 2-fid at the apex.
    Lemma
    Lemma 7-9 mm. long, mottled with purple, smooth or slightly punctulate in the lower part, scaberulous towards the tip; callus 1·5-2 mm. long, barbate, distinctly 2-fid; column 5-20 mm. long, slender, strongly twisted, scabrous or nearly glabrous; awns up to 5 cm. long, subequal; articulation between the apex of the lemma and the base of the column.
    Cytology
    2n = 22.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths glabrous, or woolly. Culms erect; 100-200 cm long. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaf-sheath oral hairs woolly. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades involute; 25-50 cm long; 2-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong; nodding; 40-80 cm long. Panicle branches capillary; smooth. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 10-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1-2 mm long; pilose; 2-toothed.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 10-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1-2 mm long; pilose; 2-toothed.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 5-7 mm long; 0.5 length of upper glume; scarious; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume margins ciliolate. Lower glume apex emarginate, or obtuse. Upper glume lanceolate; 10-15 mm long; 1.4-1.6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; scarious; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex dentate; 2 -fid.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; subterete; 7-9 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn 3-branched; with 40-50 mm long limb; with twisted column; deciduous; abscissing from top of lemma. Column of lemma awn 5-15(-18) mm long. Lateral lemma awns 40-50 mm long; subequal to principal. Palea 0.2 length of lemma; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: west-central tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south.
    Reference
    Aristideae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Free State, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Bronze three awn, Coppery three awn, Giant three awn

    Aristida meridionalis Henrard appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Burchell [2188], Botswana K000366761
    Buchanan [56], South Africa K000366757
    Buchanan [68], South Africa K000366758
    Buchanan [281], South Africa K000366759
    Rehmann [3386], South Africa K000366760

    First published in Meded. Rijks-Herb. 54A: 344 (1927)

    Accepted by

    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Henr. in Med. Rijks Herb. 54A: 344 (1927).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/