1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Aristida L.
      1. Aristida rhiniochloa Hochst.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Dry Tropical & S. Africa.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms 20-60 cm long. Culm-internodes antrorsely scabrous; distally glabrous. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaf-sheath oral hairs bearded. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 10-20 cm long; 2-4 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; lanceolate; interrupted; 8-30 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 6-17 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1 mm long; bearded; obtuse.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 6-17 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1 mm long; bearded; obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 6-17 mm long; 1.1-1.2 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Lower glume apex setaceously attenuate. Upper glume lanceolate; 5-15 mm long; 0.7-1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Upper glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; mucronate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; subterete; 7-13 mm long; coriaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma surface scabrous; rough in lines. Lemma margins involute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn 3-branched; with 15-30 mm long limb; persistent. Lateral lemma awns 15-30 mm long; subequal to principal. Palea 0.1 length of lemma; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south.
    Reference
    Aristideae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Coarse tufted annual 20–60 cm. high; culm-internodes scabrid; nodes minutely pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, up to 20 cm. long and 4 mm. wide, harshly scabrid, bearded at the collar.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 8–30 cm. long, usually narrow and interrupted, sometimes effuse.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets coarse; glumes broad, papery, flushed with red, 1-nerved, scaberulous to smooth; lower glume 6–17 mm. long, distinctly longer than the upper, tapering to a short awn-point; upper glume 5–15 mm. long, bidentate and mucronate; lemma subterete, 7–13 mm. long, shorter than the glumes, coarsely scabrid with lines of barbs from base to apex or rarely almost smooth, keeled on the back, deeply grooved ventrally with inrolled margins, passing directly into the awns without articulation; callus 1 mm. long, obtuse, bearded; awns 15–30 mm. long, rigid, scabrid.
    Habitat
    Eroded slopes in deciduous bushland; 1100 m.
    Distribution
    T5 T7 southwards to South West Africa and the Transvaal, also from Mauritania to Eritrea
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    Annual, up to 65 cm. high, caespitose, very scabrid and coarse.
    Culms
    Culms erect or geniculately ascending, branched in the lower part and from the middle nodes, retrorsely scabrous, 3-many-noded; nodes minutely pubescent.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths laxly embracing the culm, keeled, scabrous.
    Ligules
    Ligule long-ciliate; auricles long-barbate; collar minutely pubescent or glabrous.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae 10-20 x 0·2-0·4 cm., flat, glaucous, very scabrous on both surfaces.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle up to 20 cm. long, exserted, effuse or contracted and much interrupted, with very scabrid axis and branches; branches 2-nate or solitary, with dark-coloured, shortly pubescent glandular patches in the axils.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets coarse, reddish-green with a black spot at the base.
    Glume
    Glumes broadly lanceolate, shortly pubescent on the back, scaberulous on the keel, 1-nerved, awned; the inferior up to 17 mm. long, gradually tapering into a short awn up to 1·5 mm. long, the superior up to 15 mm. long, usually with 2 more or less acute lobes at the apex and a short awn 0·5-1 mm. long from the sinus.
    Lemma
    Lemma usually c. 11 mm. long, prominently nerved, with coarse antrorsely curved scabridules on the nerves, very rarely almost glabrous, keeled on the back, deeply grooved ventrally, with inrolled margins; callus 0·5-0·75 mm. long, subobtuse, barbate; column absent; awns subequal, usually 18-30 mm. long, rigid, erect or spreading, very scabrous, triquetrous, sometimes slightly winged at the base; articulation absent.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual with flat leaf-blades 2–4 mm. wide; up to 60cm. high

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Northern Provinces, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Aristida rhiniochloa Hochst. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 27, 2008 Crawford, F. [79], Namibia K000450397
    Oct 27, 2008 Crawford, F. [74], Namibia K000450398
    Aug 1, 1961 Dovey [3], Mali K000392197
    Schimper [1229], Ethiopia K000366852 isotype
    Schimper [2285], Ethiopia K000366853
    Bidgood, S. [5026], Tanzania K000190254
    Bidgood, S. [5307], Tanzania K000190537
    Barnard, K.H. [16519], Namibia K000366710

    First published in Flora 38: 200 (1855)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Flora 38: 200 (1855).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 24 (1965).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 393 (1956).
    • Hochst. in Flora 38: 200 (1855).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0