1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Aristida L.
      1. Aristida scabrivalvis Hack.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Africa.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 15-50 cm long. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 2-3.5 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 7-30 cm long; evenly furnished, or with spikelets clustered towards branch tips. Primary panicle branches branching divaricately. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 5-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 0.5 mm long; pilose; obtuse.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 5-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 0.5 mm long; pilose; obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 3.5-6 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scaberulous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface glabrous, or puberulous. Lower glume apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 1-2.5 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 5-8 mm long; 1-1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scaberulous. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface glabrous, or puberulous. Upper glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 1-2.5 mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; subterete; 5-7 mm long; coriaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma surface smooth, or scabrous; rough above. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn 3-branched; with 10-20 mm long limb; persistent. Lateral lemma awns 10-20 mm long; subequal to principal. Palea 0.1 length of lemma; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: east tropical, southern tropical, and south.
    Reference
    Aristideae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    Annual, up to 85 cm. high, caespitose.
    Culms
    Culms erect or ascending, slender, usually glabrous, smooth, much branched, 3-4-noded; nodes glabrous, smooth.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths laxly embracing the culm, keeled, glabrous or minutely scaberulous, the lower often with some scattered long hairs.
    Ligules
    Ligule a short-ciliolate rim; auricles densely and shortly ciliolate, often with a few long hairs, or nearly glabrous; collar glabrous.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae 30 x 0·1-0·35 cm., usually flat, fairly rigid with 1-2 pallid prominent marginal nerves, scaberulous and hirtellous above, glabrous, smooth, or minutely scaberulous beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 15-30 cm. long, terminal and lateral, usually lax; axis more or less terete, glabrous in the lower part, angular, scabrous in the upper part; branches often filiform and sometimes flexuous, naked in the lower part, compressed, angular, scabrous, with a dark glandular patch in the axils.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets linear, purplish.
    Glume
    Glumes subequal to unequal, 1-nerved, scaberulous or hirtellous, with a scabrid keel; the inferior 4-6·5 mm. long, lanceolate, more or less gradually tapering into an awn up to 3 mm. long or with a slightly 2-fid apex, with an awn up to 2·5 mm. long from the sinus; the superior up to 5·5-6·5 mm. long, deeply 2-fid, with an awn up to 1·5 mm. long from the sinus.
    Lemma
    Lemma 5-7 mm. long, slightly keeled, purple or green, darkly mottled, glabrous or punctulate in the lower part, with rows of coarse scabridules towards the apex, rarely glabrous all over; callus c. 1·5 mm. long, rounded to subacute, densely short-barbate; beak or column absent; awns 10-14 mm. long, subequal, erect or somewhat spreading, very scabrous; articulation absent.
    Cytology
    2n = 22.
    Diagnostic
    A distinct species which is characterized by having a large panicle, conspicuously awned, scabrid or hirtellous, subequal or unequal glumes (the superior longer than the inferior), and by a scabrid, rarely nearly glabrous lemma which is subequal or shorter than the glumes.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Erect annual, 15–50 cm. high or more.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 3–30 cm. long and up to 3.5 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ovate, 7–30 cm. long, open, divaricate.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets purple or purplish-brown; glumes linear-lanceolate, subequal or unequal, distinctly awned (awn up to 2.5 mm. long), puberulous or at least with a scabrid keel; lower glume shorter than the upper, 3.5–6 mm. long; upper glume strongly bidentate, 5–8 mm. long; lemma subterete, 5–7 mm. long, shorter than the glumes, coarsely scabrid in the upper part or at least on the keel, passing into the awn without column or articulation; callus linear, 0.5 mm. long, narrowly obtuse at the tip; awns 1–2 cm. long, scabrid.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Purple three-awn

    Aristida scabrivalvis Hack. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Bidgood, S. [5287], Tanzania K000190517
    Schlechter, F.R.R. [4217], South Africa K000366715 syntype
    Schlechter, F.R.R. [4689], South Africa K000366716 syntype

    First published in Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 6: 708 (1906)

    Accepted by

    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hack. in Bull. Herb. Boiss., sér. 2, 6: 708 (1906).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/