1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Aristida L.
      1. Aristida stipoides Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to Namibia.

    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Robust annual 90–120 cm. high
    Leaves
    Convolute leaf-blades
    Glume
    Purplish glumes.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Loosely tufted annual; culms 90–150 cm. high, the internodes glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades up to 30 cm. long and 4 mm. wide, often involute, with a flake of wool at the auricles.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle effuse, up to 50 cm. long, lax, often nodding.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets pallid or purplish; glumes unequal, obtuse or at most mucronate; lower glume lanceolate, 5–7 mm. long; upper glume linear-lanceolate, 14–20 mm. long; lemma terete, 7–9 mm. long, glabrous, articulated at the apex; callus 1.5–2 mm. long, broadly linear, 2-toothed; column 1.5–3 cm. long; central awn 3.5–6 cm. long, the laterals a little shorter.
    Habitat
    A ruderal species of old cultivation and roadsides; ± 1200–1350 m.
    Distribution
    T1 T4 T7 mainly in W. and NE. tropical Africa, but with sporadic occurrences southwards to South West Africa
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms 90-150 cm long. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Leaf-sheath oral hairs woolly. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or involute; 15-30 cm long; 2-4 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; elliptic; effuse; equilateral, or nodding; 20-50 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 14-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1.5-2 mm long; pilose; 2-toothed.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 14-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1.5-2 mm long; pilose; 2-toothed.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 5-7 mm long; 0.3-0.4 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume lanceolate; 14-20 mm long; 2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; subterete; 7-9 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn 3-branched; with 35-60 mm long limb; with twisted column; deciduous; abscissing from top of lemma. Column of lemma awn 15-30 mm long. Lateral lemma awns 30-50 mm long; shorter than principal. Palea 0.1 length of lemma; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south.
    Reference
    Aristideae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    Annual, up to 1.5 m. high, robust, laxly caespitose.
    Culms
    Culms erect, simple or slightly branched from the upper nodes, glabrous, usually 3-noded; nodes glabrous.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths slightly scaberulous or glabrous.
    Ligules
    Ligule a short-ciliate rim; auricles with a tuft of woolly hairs; collar glabrous.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae up to 30 x 0.3-0.5 cm., when expanded, involute or more or less flat at the base, prominently nerved and scabrous above, smooth beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle up to 50 cm. long, effuse and very lax, often nodding, often few-flowered; branches glabrous or scaberulous, 2- or 3-nate with filiform branchlets; axis smooth.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets pallid or tinged with red or purple, especially at the base, sometimes with a black spot.
    Glume
    Glumes very unequal, 1-nerved, glabrous; the inferior 5-7 mm. long, broadly lanceolate, slightly 2-fid, minutely serrulate-ciliate at the margins towards the apex; the superior 15-20 mm. long, narrowly linear with a mucro from a 2-fid apex.
    Lemma
    Lemma 7-9 mm. long, smooth below, strongly punctulate towards the apex; callus slender, c. 2 mm. long, 2-fid, barbate; column 2-3 cm. long, prominently twisted, scabrous; awns subequal, scabrous, 3.5-5.5 cm. long; articulation between the apex of the lemma and the base of the column.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Large fountain bristle grass

    Aristida stipoides Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Bidgood, S. [5883], Tanzania K000468542
    Kotschy [142], Sudan K000366830
    Schweickerdt, H.G.W.J. [2129] K000366762
    Schweickerdt, H.G.W.J. [2131] K000366763 Unknown type material
    Speke [164] K000366777

    First published in Encycl. 1: 157 (1783)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 407.
    • in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 110
    • Henrard in Med. Rijks Herb. 58: 93
    • Chev. Bot. 741
    • Tab. Encycl. 1: 157 (1791)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 23 (1965).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 396 (1956).
    • Lam., Tab. Encycl. 1: 157 (1791).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/