1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Desmostachya (Stapf) Stapf
      1. Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sahara to Tanzania and Indo-China.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose; clumped densely. Rhizomes elongated; scaly. Butt sheaths scarious; pallid, or dark brown; glabrous. Basal innovations intravaginal; flabellate. Culms erect; 50-100 cm long. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths as wide as blade at the collar; smooth; glabrous on surface. Ligule a ciliate membrane; 0.5-1 mm long. Leaf-blades convolute; 10-50 cm long; 2-6 mm wide; coriaceous; stiff; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface ribbed. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate; filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes numerous; borne along a central axis; closely spaced; in a multilateral false spike; spreading; oblong; unilateral; 1-2 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 15-40 cm long. Rhachis semiterete; puberulous on surface. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded. Spikelets spreading; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-18 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2.5-13 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes eventually visible between lemmas.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-18 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2.5-13 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes eventually visible between lemmas.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 0.7-1.5 mm long; 0.5 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1.1-2 mm long; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile florets free at tip. Fertile lemma ovate; laterally compressed; 1.5-1.8 mm long; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma lateral veins obscure; close to margins. Lemma apex acute. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Palea apex entire; acute. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy; entire; emarginate. Anthers 3; linear. Stigmas 2; laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ovoid; trigonous; without sulcus. Embryo 0.3-0.4 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform. Disseminule comprising a spikelet.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, west tropical, and northeast tropical. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, and China. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. WDC.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Central African Repu, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Cocos (Keeling) Is., Lesser Sunda Is.

    Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 15, 1934 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245137
    Oct 1, 1929 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000907349
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7016], Thailand K000621543
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7016], Thailand K000621544
    Kerr, A.F.G. [8473], Thailand K000621545
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19514], Thailand K000621546
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19514], Thailand K000621547
    Kerr, A.F.G. [20469], Thailand K000621548
    Kerr, A.F.G. [21565], Thailand K000621549
    Smitinand, T. [5809], Thailand K000682610
    Desai, J. [31], India Desmostachya pingalaiae K000907350 isotype

    First published in W.H.Harvey & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 7: 632 (1900)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0