1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Digitaria Haller
      1. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Central Asia and Malesia.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    A loosely caespitose or solitary growing annual.
    Culms
    Culms 20–60 cm., decumbent or creeping at the base, glabrous, nodes dark and glabrous.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf sheaths smooth to scaberulous.
    Ligules
    Ligule 1–2 mm. long, truncate, erose.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 3–12 × 0.1–0.5 cm., linear, flat, scaberulous on both surfaces, with a few bulbous based bristles on the superior surface, near the base, scaberulous along the margin.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of (2)4–8 racemes, (3)6–12 cm. long, erect, (2)3–4(5) in a inferior whorl, sometimes a second, superior whorl of 2–3 racemes.
    Rachis
    Rhachis triquetrous, broadly winged, up to 0.7 mm. wide, smooth to scaberulous with scabrous margins.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 2-nate, 0.3–3 mm. long, triangular, scabrous, scarcely widened at the apex.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets (1.8)2.1–2.8 mm. long, ovate-oblong.
    Glume
    Superior glume 1/3–2/3 of the spikelet, ovate to oblong triangular, 3-nerved, appressed hairy, hairs fine, smooth, acute. Inferior glume short, triangular, sometimes truncate or even slightly bifid.
    Inferior
    Inferior lemma as long as the spikelet, ovate-oblong, 7-nerved, nerves scabrous, especially the subcentral and submarginal nerves, central zone often broad, appressed hairy. Inferior glume short, triangular, sometimes truncate or even slightly bifid.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma as long as to somewhat shorter than the spikelet, oblong-lanceolate, slightly acuminate, pale yellow to pale brown, sometimes purplish tinged. Inferior lemma as long as the spikelet, ovate-oblong, 7-nerved, nerves scabrous, especially the subcentral and submarginal nerves, central zone often broad, appressed hairy.
    Superior
    Superior lemma as long as to somewhat shorter than the spikelet, oblong-lanceolate, slightly acuminate, pale yellow to pale brown, sometimes purplish tinged. Superior glume 1/3–2/3 of the spikelet, ovate to oblong triangular, 3-nerved, appressed hairy, hairs fine, smooth, acute.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms 20–60 cm. high or sometimes more, decumbent at the base, geniculately ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades broadly linear to narrowly lanceolate, 3–30 cm. long, 3–17 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence digitate or subdigitate (rarely with an axis up to 5 cm. long in robust specimens), of 2–16 racemes; racemes stiff, 3–20 cm. long, the spikelets binate and overlapping by about 2/3 of their length on a winged rhachis with triquetrous midrib.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 2.3–3.5 mm. long, acute; lower glume a little ovate scale 0.2 mm. long; upper glume 1/3–1/2 as long as the spikelet, 3-nerved; lower lemma as long as the spikelet, 7-nerved, the nerves evenly spaced (or occasionally with a wide interspace flanking the midrib) and scaberulous, obscurely and appressedly pubescent, rarely with brownish glassy bristles, very rarely with a ciliate frill; fruit lanceolate, grey or light brown, as long as the lower lemma or almost so.
    Habitat
    An introduced weed; 1600 m.
    Distribution
    T4 warm temperate regions throughout the world
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms decumbent, or prostrate; 10-30 cm long; 3-8 -noded; rooting from lower nodes. Culm-nodes glabrous, or bearded. Leaf-sheaths pilose. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long. Leaf-blades 3-10 cm long; 3-8 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 4-10; digitate; unilateral; 4-18 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; angular; scabrous on margins. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; 2.5-3.3 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; 2.5-3.3 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.3-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent; hairy between veins. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7 -veined; with equidistant veins; scabrous; rough on veins; puberulous; hairy between veins; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2.5-3.3 mm long; cartilaginous; much thinner on margins; without keel. Lemma margins flat; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.6 mm long.
    Fruits
    Hilum elliptic.
    Distribution
    Europe: central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Paniceae. CEH.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2500 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, France, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Laccadive Is., Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Maldives, Manchuria, Morocco, Nicobar Is., North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South China Sea, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Bahamas, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil South, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Louisiana, Maine, Malawi, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Namibia, Nebraska, Netherlands, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Poland, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Crab finger grass, Crab grass, Crop grass, Land grass

    Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2011 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245364 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 2011 s.coll. [s.n.], India K001056105
    Pereira, E. [5371], Brazil K001102890
    Duarte, A.P. [5054], Brazil K001102889
    [illegible] [s.n.], Germany K000885991
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245366 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [73], France K000885990
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K001056106
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8681], India Panicum sanguinale K001131198
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8681], Nepal Panicum sanguinale K001131206
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8681], Nepal Panicum sanguinale K001131207
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131204
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131205
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131193
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131194
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131195
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131196
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681], India Panicum sanguinale K001131197
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131199
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131200
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131201
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131202
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8681] Panicum sanguinale K001131203

    First published in Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 52 (1771)

    Accepted by

    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M., Márquez García, F. & Blanco Salas, J. (2014). 084.- Digitaria ciliaris Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 8: 86-91.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Sánchez-Ken, J.G. (2012). A synopsis of Digitaria (Paniceae, Panicoideae, Poaceae) in Mexico, including the new species Digitaria michoacensis Acta Botanica Mexicana 101: 127-149. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Damanakis, M. & Scholz, H. (1990). Phytogeographical notes on the Poaceae of Greece Willdenowia 19: 413-423.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/