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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics to S. Central Europe. It is used as a medicine.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Habit
Tufted perennial with laterally compressed basal sheaths; stems up to 1 m high, erect
Inflorescences
Racemes 3–10 cm long, solitary or aggregated into a scanty false panicle, the awns forming a twisted spire; homogamous spikelet-pairs 3–17, resembling the pedicelled spikelets
Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm long with a callus 2–3 mm long. Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm long, including the ferociously pungent, rufously bearded 2–3 mm long callus; lower glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm long
Distribution
N1, 2; C1, 2; S3 tropical and warm temperate regions generally.
Ecology
Altitude range 25–1650 m.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Habit
Caespitose perennial with laterally compressed leaf sheaths; culms up to 100 cm high, erect.
Leaf lamina
Leaf laminas 3–30 cm × 2–8 mm, abruptly narrowed at the apex.
Inflorescences
Racemes 3–10 cm long, mostly long-exserted, solitary or aggregated into a scanty false panicle, the awns eventually twisted together into a terminal spire; homogamous spikelet pairs 3–17, resembling the pedicelled spikelets.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm long (including the ferociously pungent and rufously barbate callus 2–3 mm long); inferior glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm long, hirtellous.
Spikelets
Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm long; inferior glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the indumentum ranging from absent to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm long. Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm long (including the ferociously pungent and rufously barbate callus 2–3 mm long); inferior glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm long, hirtellous.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm long; inferior glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the indumentum ranging from absent to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm long.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Habit
Untidily tufted perennial, the basal sheaths laterally compressed; culms 30–100 cm. high, erect.
Leaves
Leaf-blades flat, 3–30 cm. long, 2–8 mm. wide, abruptly narrowed at the tip.
Inflorescences
Homogamous pairs 3–17, resembling the pedicelled spikelets. Racemes 3–10 cm. long, mostly long-exserted, solitary or aggregated into a scanty false panicle, the awns forming a twisted spire.
Spikelets
Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm. long, including a ferociously pungent and rufously bearded callus 2–3 mm. long; lower glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm. long, hirtellous. Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm. long; lower glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the hairiness varying from glabrous to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm. long.
Sessile
Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm. long, including a ferociously pungent and rufously bearded callus 2–3 mm. long; lower glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm. long, hirtellous.
Pedicelled
Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm. long; lower glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the hairiness varying from glabrous to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm. long.
Figures
Fig. 191.
Habitat
Deciduous bushland and wooded grassland; often the dominant species in open grassy places on dry soils; 0–2100 m.
Distribution
tropical and warm temperate regions generally K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

[GB]
Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Basal innovations intravaginal. Culms erect; 30-100 cm long; 1.5-3 mm diam. Culm-internodes solid. Culm-nodes black. Lateral branches fastigiate. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 1 mm long. Collar glabrous, or pilose. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 2-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface ribbed. Leaf-blade apex abruptly acute.
Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle antrorsely scabrous above. Racemes 1; single; erect; unilateral; 3-10 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; glabrous on margins. Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip oblique. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong; semiterete; 0.2 length of fertile spikelet.
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 6-34 in number; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 5-15 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; eglandular; winged on margins; distinctly veined; smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose, or villous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 5.5-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red; 0.2 length of spikelet. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 6-34 in number; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 5-15 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; eglandular; winged on margins; distinctly veined; smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose, or villous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 5.5-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red; 0.2 length of spikelet.
Glume
Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; dark brown; without keels; 9 -veined. Lower glume surface puberulous, or pubescent, or pilose. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume linear; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume muticous.
Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 2 -veined; erose. Fertile lemma linear; 3-5 mm long; membranous; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 50-80 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn hirtellous. Palea absent or minute.
Flowers
Anthers 3; 2.5 mm long. Stigmas 2.
Distribution
Europe: central, southwestern, and southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: southwest USA, south-central USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTEA.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.
Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Habit
Perennial, up to about 1 m. high
Flowers
Awns twisted into a spire when young, and forming a malignant tangled knot at maturity; callus painfully pungent.

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[UPB]
Medicines
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Ascension, Cook Is., Nansei-shoto, Venezuela, Wallis-Futuna Is.

English
(Common) spear grass, Stick grass, Tanglehead

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [89], Cape Verde K001134468
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [90], Cape Verde K001134467
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [91], Cape Verde K001259203
Jan 1, 2014 Ule, E. [7920], Brazil K001072841
Jan 1, 2014 Gardner, G. [3522], Brazil K001072840
May 27, 1933 s.coll. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu K000911728
Jan 1, 1817 Hohenacker, R.F. [301], Karnataka K000245939 isotype
Jan 1, 1817 Hohenacker, R.F. [301], Karnataka K000245940 isotype
Jan 1, 1817 Wallich, N. [1688], India K000245938
Hinton, G.B. [5306], México State K000476382
Hinton, G.B. [6700], Guerrero K000476384
Hinton, G.B. [2068], México State K000476385
Hinton, G.B. [1821], México State K000476381
Hinton, G.B. [9400], Guerrero K000476383
Kerr, A.F.G. [19559], Thailand K000620579
Kerr, A.F.G. [11072], Thailand K000620580
Kerr, A.F.G. [15976], Thailand K000620581
Kerr, A.F.G. [7976], Thailand K000620582
Kerr, A.F.G. [7073], Thailand K000620583
Kerr, A.F.G. [4610], Thailand K000620584
Kerr, A.F.G. [1267], Thailand K000620585
Kerr, A.F.G. [19765], Thailand K000620593
Sorensen, Th. [4437], Thailand K000688904
Sorensen, Th. [5886], Thailand K000688905
Larsen, K. [1596], Thailand K000688903
van Beusekom, C.F. [3789], Thailand K000688902
Schimper [1219], Ethiopia K000280098 isotype
Schimper [1219], Ethiopia K000280097 isotype
Schimper [1219], Ethiopia K000280099 isotype
Smitinand, T. [1613], Thailand K000688894
Smitinand, T. [2032], Thailand K000688895
Smitinand, T. [3063], Thailand K000688896
Smitinand, T. [4001], Thailand K000688897
Smitinand, T. [4264], Thailand K000688898
Chantaranothai, P. [90/478], Thailand K000688893
Spruce, R. [6094], Ecuador K000201742
Spruce, R. [6094], Ecuador K000201743
Parry, D.E. [38], Thailand K000688901
Put [2173], Thailand K000620586
Put [2173], Thailand K000620587
Put [1967], Thailand K000620588
Put [1967], Thailand K000620589
Eiten, G. [10790], Brazil K001072843
Collins, D.J. [1909], Thailand K000688892
Kloss, C.B. [s.n.], Thailand K000688888
Hosseus, C.C. [108a], Thailand K000688891
Marcan, A. [2313], Thailand K000620590
Marcan, A. [2313], Thailand K000620591
Marcan, A. [2229], Thailand K000620592
Tagawa, M. [T 2203], Thailand K000688900
Smitinand [6190], Thailand K000688899
Lindhard, E. [s.n.], Thailand K000688889
Lindhard, E. [s.n.], Thailand K000688890
s.coll. [s.n.], France K000911729
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8800], Nepal Andropogon contortus K001128242
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128236
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128237
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128238
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800], India Andropogon contortus K001128239
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800], India Andropogon contortus K001128240
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800], India Andropogon contortus K001128241
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128246
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128243
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128244
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8800], Myanmar Andropogon contortus K001128245

First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 836 (1817)

Accepted by

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Literature

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 421.
  • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 878
  • F.T.A. 9: 411
  • Syst. Veg. 2: 836 (1817)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Barina, Z., Pifkó, D. & Mesterházy, A. (2011). Contributions to the flora of Albania, 3 Willdenowia 41: 329-339.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook. A concise guide to Ascension Island South Atlantic ed. 2 Packer, Georgetown.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
  • Mouterde, P. (1966). Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie 1(Texte): 1-563. Éditions de l'imprimerie Catholique, Beyrouth.
  • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
  • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
  • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
  • de Cordemoy, E.J. (1895). Flore de l'ile de la Réunion: 1-574. Librairie des sciences naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 473 (1972).
  • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 111 (1965).
  • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 35 (1960).
  • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 62 (1958).
  • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 43 (1958).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 463 (1956).
  • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 68 (1955).
  • Edwards & Bogdan, Imp. Grassl. Pl. Kenya: 82 (1951).
  • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 22 (1947).
  • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 1: 211 (1929).
  • Hubbard, E.A. Pasture Plants 1: 26 (1926).
  • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 411 (1919).
  • Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2: 836 (1817).

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