1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Heteropogon Pers.
      1. Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Benth.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to China (Yunnan), Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Tall annual; culms up to 250 cm high, robust, erect, supported below by stilt roots.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminas flat, up to 50 cm × 10 mm, gradually acuminate at the apex.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 3–6 cm long, emerging from the side of the spatheole, aggregated into a copious false panicle; homogamous spikelet pairs 1–3, resembling the pedicelled spikelets.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet 10–11 mm long (including a sharply pungent and rufously barbate callus c. 4 mm long); inferior glume elliptic-oblong, dark brown, densely hispidulous; awn 7–12 cm long, pubescent. Pedicelled spikelet 15–25 mm long; inferior glume light green, herbaceous, glabrous, with a median line of depressed glands running along its length, long-acuminate at the apex; callus 2–3 mm long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 10–11 mm long (including a sharply pungent and rufously barbate callus c. 4 mm long); inferior glume elliptic-oblong, dark brown, densely hispidulous; awn 7–12 cm long, pubescent.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 15–25 mm long; inferior glume light green, herbaceous, glabrous, with a median line of depressed glands running along its length, long-acuminate at the apex; callus 2–3 mm long.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tall annual; culms 0.5–2.5 m. high, robust, erect, supported below by stilt roots.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, up to 50 cm. long and 10 mm. wide, gradually acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 3–6 cm. long, emerging from the side of the spatheole, aggregated into a copious false panicle. Homogamous pairs 1–3, resembling the pedicelled spikelets.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet 10–11 mm. long, including a sharply pungent and rufously bearded callus 4 mm. long; lower glume elliptic-oblong, dark brown, densely hispidulous; awn 7–12 cm. long, pubescent. Pedicelled spikelet 15–25 mm. long; lower glume light green, herbaceous, glabrous, with a median line of depressed glands running along its length, long-acuminate; callus 2–3 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 10–11 mm. long, including a sharply pungent and rufously bearded callus 4 mm. long; lower glume elliptic-oblong, dark brown, densely hispidulous; awn 7–12 cm. long, pubescent.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 15–25 mm. long; lower glume light green, herbaceous, glabrous, with a median line of depressed glands running along its length, long-acuminate; callus 2–3 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Abandoned cultivation and track-sides; also in patches in deciduous bushland and Brachystegia wooded grassland; 0–1600 m.
    Distribution
    tropical Africa, extending through Arabia to Indiaalso in tropical America K1 K4 K7 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual, up to 2 m. or more
    Flowers
    Callus pungent, 5 mm. long.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; robust; 50-250 cm long; with prop roots. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths glandular. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 15-50 cm long; 4-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; paniculate; 10-30 cm long. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole linear; 7-12 cm long; herbaceous. Racemes 1; single; unilateral; 3-6 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; glabrous on margins. Rhachis internodes linear; 2-3 mm long. Rhachis internode tip oblique. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong; semiterete; 0.2 length of fertile spikelet.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2-6 in number; larger than fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 15-25 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long. Companion sterile spikelet glumes herbaceous; glandular (along midline); winged on margins; distinctly veined; glabrous; attenuate; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 10-11 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 4 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2-6 in number; larger than fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 15-25 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long. Companion sterile spikelet glumes herbaceous; glandular (along midline); winged on margins; distinctly veined; glabrous; attenuate; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 10-11 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 4 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic, or oblong; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; dark brown; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Lower glume surface hispidulous. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume linear; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume muticous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 2.5 mm long; hyaline; 0 -veined; without midvein; without lateral veins. Fertile lemma linear; 6-10 mm long; membranous; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 70-120 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn pubescent. Palea fused below to rhachilla internode; 0.2-0.3 length of lemma.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 1 mm long. Stigmas 2.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia and China. Asia-tropical: India. North America: southwest USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, China South-Central, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gambia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Oman, Paraguay, Peru, Senegal, South Carolina, Sudan, Tanzania, Texas, Venezuela, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Heteropogon melanocarpus (Elliott) Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2014 Ule, E. [8012], Brazil K001072838
    Jan 1, 2014 Burchell, W.J. [8777], Brazil K001072839
    Hinton, G.B. [6608], Guerrero K000476380
    Spruce, R. [4180], Peru K000201744
    Elliott [3] K000911719
    Royle, J.F. [232], India K000911727

    First published in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 71 (1881)

    Accepted by

    • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 421.
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 878
    • F.T.A. 9: 413
    • in J. Linn. Soc. 19: 71 (1881)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 473 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 111 (1965).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 62 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 43 (1958).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 1: 214 (1929).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 413 (1919).
    • Benth. in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 19: 71 (1881).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0