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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Leymus Hochst.
      1. Leymus arenarius (L.) Hochst.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 60-200 cm long. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.3-1 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades flat, or involute; 20-60 cm long; 8-22 mm wide; stiff; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; scaberulous; rough adaxially. Leaf-blade apex acuminate; hardened.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; erect; bilateral; 15-35 cm long. Rhachis flattened; scabrous on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2 in the cluster.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate; laterally compressed; 20-32 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate. Rhachilla internodes definite; obscured by lemmas; pubescent.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate; laterally compressed; 20-32 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate. Rhachilla internodes definite; obscured by lemmas; pubescent.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; reaching apex of florets, or shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 18-30 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex attenuate. Upper glume lanceolate; 18-30 mm long; 1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex attenuate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 15-25 mm long; coriaceous; keeled; keeled above; 7 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent. Lemma apex acute. Palea lanceolate; 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; elliptic; membranous. Anthers 3; 7-8 mm long. Stigmas 2; protandrous; laterally exserted. Ovary pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform; isodiametric; estipitate; without sulcus; 10 mm long; smooth; apex unappendaged. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 0.9 length of caryopsis. Endosperm farinose.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, and eastern. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, and northwest USA. South America: southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Triticeae. CEH.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belarus, Belgium, Central European Rus, Denmark, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Netherlands, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine

    Introduced into:

    Argentina South, Austria, Baltic States, Chatham Is., Chile South, Connecticut, Czechoslovakia, Falkland Is., Greenland, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, New Zealand South, Northwest Territorie, Ontario, Québec, Tasmania, Victoria, Wisconsin

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Leymus arenarius (L.) Hochst. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Goodenough, S. [s.n.] K000674968
    Turner, D. [s.n.] K000674966
    Smith, T. E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000674967
    Turczaninow, N.S. [s.n.] Elymus geniculatus K000674912
    s.coll. [s.n.], Russian Federation Elymus geniculatus K000674911
    Krascheninnikov, H. [1054], Russian Federation Elymus geniculatus K000674914

    Bibliography

    First published in Flora 31: 118 (1848)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0