1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum atrosanguineum Hochst. ex A.Rich.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to Botswana, Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Tufted, pilose annual with culms 10–40 cm. high.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 6–14 cm. long, narrowly lanceolate, acute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 4–20 cm. long, ovate or oblong, much branched, the branches fine and spreading or ascending.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.8–2 mm. long, ovate oblong, glabrous, purple tinged; inferior glume broadly ovate 2/3 the length of the spikelet, 3–5-nerved, acuminate; superior glume ovate, 5–7-nerved, acuminate; inferior lemma similar to the superior glume, sterile, its palea poorly developed; superior lemma and palea dark, glossy.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms 10-40 cm long. Leaf-sheaths hispid. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades lanceolate; parallel-sided; 6-14 cm long; 5-14 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface hispid, or pilose; with tubercle-based hairs. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong, or ovate; 6-20 cm long. Primary panicle branches spreading. Panicle branches capillary. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 1.8-2.2 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 1.8-2.2 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.66 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 1.5-2 mm long; indurate; dark brown to black; shiny; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: India and Indo-China.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted annual; culms 10–40 cm. high, ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-sheaths hispid; blades lanceolate, 6–14 cm. long, 5–14 mm. wide, straight at the base, pilose or hispid with tubercle-based hairs, acute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ovate or oblong, 6–20 cm. long, much branched, the branches fine, spreading and symmetrical.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate-oblong, 1.8–2.2 mm. long, glabrous, often tinged purple, shortly acuminate; lower glume broadly ovate, 2/3 the length of the spikelet, 3–5-nerved, acuminate; upper glume ovate, 5–7-nerved, acute; lower lemma ovate, 5–7-nerved, sterile, its palea poorly developed; upper lemma dark and glossy.
    Habitat
    Disturbed places and old farmland in deciduous bushland; 100–2200 m.
    Distribution
    Zaire to Ethiopia and southwards to Zimbabwe K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Laos, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Panicum atrosanguineum Hochst. ex A.Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Larsen, K. [9973], Thailand K000682745
    Schimper [1709], Ethiopia K000256709 holotype
    Schimper [1709], Ethiopia K000256710 holotype
    Schimper [1709], Ethiopia K000256711 holotype
    Schweinfurth, G. [1585], Africa Panicum sociale K000256712 Unknown type material

    First published in Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 375 (1850)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 62 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 46 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 38 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 502 (1956).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 104 (1955).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 30 (1947).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 2: 201 (1934).
    • Hubbard, E.A. Pasture Plants 2: 24 (1927).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 703 (1920).
    • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 375 (1851).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0