1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum brazzavillense Franch.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Madagascar.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths persistent and investing base of culm; with compacted dead sheaths, or fibrous dead sheaths. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; slender; (20-)60-80(-85) cm long. Leaves mostly basal. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades parallel-sided; conduplicate, or involute; 10-20(-25) cm long; 1-3 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong, or ovate; 3-15(-20) cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate, or orbicular; dorsally compressed; 1.2-1.7 mm long; falling entire; readily shedding fertile florets.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate, or orbicular; dorsally compressed; 1.2-1.7 mm long; falling entire; readily shedding fertile florets.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.66-0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous (rarely), or pubescent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous (rarely), or pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; glabrous (rarely), or pubescent; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 1.2-1.7 mm long; chartaceous; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface tuberculate (verruculose). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; chartaceous. Palea surface tuberculate (verruculose).
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, east tropical, and southern tropical.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial, with basal buds often conspicuous and basal leaf-sheaths persistent, occasionally fibrous; culms slender, (20–)30–60(–85) cm. high, often stiff, usually erect, occasionally ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly basal; blades linear, 10–20(–25) cm. long, 1–3 mm. wide, straight at the base, ascending, stiff, flat, folded or inrolled, glabrous to densely pilose, acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ovate or oblong, 3–15(–20) cm. long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate or orbicular, 1.2–1.7 mm. long, sparsely to densely pubescent, rarely glabrous; lower glume broadly ovate, 2/3–3/4 the length of the spikelet, 3-nerved; upper glume 5-nerved, acute; lower lemma 5-nerved, ♂, its palea well developed; upper lemma and palea verruculose.
    Habitat
    Seasonally damp grassland on sandy soils; 25–2000 m.
    Distribution
    T4 T6 T8 U4 West Africa to Angola and Zimbabwe
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    A caespitose perennial with slender erect culms (20)30–60(85) cm. high.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 10–20(25) cm. long, linear, acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 3–15(20) cm. long, ovate or oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.2–1.7 mm. long, ovate or orbicular, sparsely to densely pubescent, rarely glabrous; inferior glume 2/3–3/4 the length of the spikelet, 3-nerved; superior glume 5-nerved; inferior lemma 5-nerved, enclosing a male flower, its palea well developed; superior lemma and palea verruculose.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 20-70 cm long. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Lateral branches lacking. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform; involute; 5-15 cm long; 1-2 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous; hairless throughout, or except near base.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; effuse; 5-10 cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending; 1 -nate. Panicle branches capillary. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; flexuous; 2-10 mm long; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate, or orbicular; dorsally compressed; subacute; 1.5-1.8 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate, or orbicular; dorsally compressed; subacute; 1.5-1.8 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.75-0.8 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; dorsally compressed; 1-1.2 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface papillose. Lemma margins convolute. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Gr Madag 1997.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Loosely tufted perennial about 60 cm. high, with weak culms
    Ecology
    On wet or swampy soils.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Panicum brazzavillense Franch. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1987 Appleton, A.F. [6], Zimbabwe K000282488 syntype
    Chevalier [805], Nigeria K000256732 syntype
    Chevalier [805], Nigeria K000256733 syntype
    Bidgood, S. [5745], Tanzania K000468679
    Bidgood, S. [5503], Tanzania K000190733
    Bidgood, S. [5534], Tanzania K000468890
    Welwitsch [2872], Angola K000282489 isosyntype
    Welwitsch [7432], Angola K000282490
    Barter [1013], Nigeria K000256730 syntype
    Vanderyst, H. [7014], Zaire K000255589
    Thollon [876], Congo K000255588 isotype
    Parsons, A.C. [13], Nigeria K000256731 syntype
    Dalziel, J. M. [899], Nigeria K000256729 syntype
    Welwtisch [2671], Angola K000282495 isotype
    Griffon de Bellay [265], Gabon K000255590 isotype
    Richardson, A. J. [s.n.], Nigeria K000256728 syntype

    First published in Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 8: 341 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 2: 178 (1934).
    • Franch. in Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 8: 341 (1895).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0