1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum brevifolium L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms 15–100 cm. long, rambing, often rooting from the lower nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaf-sheaths ciliately fringed; blades narrowly ovate to ovate, 5–10 cm. long, 10–25(–38) mm. wide, amplexicaul, thin, cross-veins present, glabrous or pilose, finely acute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ovate, 5–15 cm. long, rarely more, delicately branched, the branches spreading and often appearing somewhat tangled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate, 1.5(–1.8) mm. long, asymmetrical, usually sparsely puberulous to pilose, slightly apiculate; lower glume hyaline, oblong, as long as the spikelet, (1–)3-nerved, separated from the rest of the spikelet by a short swollen internode; upper glume ovate, herbaceous, 5-nerved; lower lemma 5-nerved, sterile, its palea well developed; upper lemma pale, shining.
    Habitat
    Forest shade; 0–1700 m.
    Distribution
    K7 P T1 T3 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3 U4 Z throughout the Old World tropics
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Annual; culms 15–100 cm. long, rambling, often rooting at the lower nodes.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 5–10 cm. long and 10–25 mm. wide, thin amplexicaul, glabrous or pilose, cross-veins present, finely acute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 5–15 cm. long, ovate, much-branched, the branches delicate and often appearing somewhat tangled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.5–2 mm. long, ovate or ovate-elliptic, sparsely puberulous to pilose; inferior glume as long as the spikelet, 3-nerved; superior glume 5-nerved; inferior lemma 5-nerved, sterile, its palea present; superior lemma and palea pallid, glossy.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms rambling; 15-100 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Leaf-sheaths outer margin hairy. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base amplexicaul. Leaf-blades ovate; 5-10 cm long; 10-25(-38) mm wide; membranous. Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 5-16 cm long. Primary panicle branches spreading. Panicle branches capillary; flexuous, or tangled. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; all alike, or heteromorphic (peripheral spikelets villous).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; acute; 1.5(-1.8) mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; acute; 1.5(-1.8) mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; (1-)3 -veined. Lower glume surface puberulous, or pilose. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; herbaceous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface puberulous, or pilose. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 1 mm long; indurate; pallid; shiny; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia. South America: Brazil.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Forest shade. A rambling annual 30–60 cm. high, with long aerial roots from the nodes
    Note
    Very rarely the outer spikelets of the panicle are long-hairy and apparently surrounded by a delicate halo.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms rambling, or scandent; 100-200 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Lateral branches ample. Leaf-sheaths tight; 3.5-4.5 cm long; striately veined; pilose. Ligule a ciliate membrane; 0.5-1 mm long. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 9.5-22 cm long; 19-34 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous. Leaf-blade venation with 6-10 secondary veins; with obscure cross veins. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; globose; effuse; 22-32 cm long. Primary panicle branches spreading. Panicle branches stiff; smooth. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; 30-60 mm long; smooth.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; obtuse; 2.5-3 mm long; 1.4-2 mm wide; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; obtuse; 2.5-3 mm long; 1.4-2 mm wide; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 2.5-3 mm long; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 9 -veined. Lower glume surface puberulous. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 2-2.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 9 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 2 mm long; 0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; 3-5 -veined; pubescent; obtuse. Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; 2.5 mm long; indurate; dark brown; shiny; without keel. Lemma surface smooth. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex pubescent. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: northeast tropical.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Fries & Voll. 2001.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria, Philippines, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Brazil Northeast

    Panicum brevifolium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [7150], Cameroon K000107870
    Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2639], Cameroon K000107869
    Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2053], Cameroon K000107871
    Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [4276], Cameroon K000107901
    Jun 1, 2001 Pollard, B.J. [122], Cameroon K000107920
    Feb 1, 1996 Etuge, M. [1430], Cameroon K000107942
    Feb 1, 1996 Patterson, C. [2], Cameroon K000107941
    Jan 1, 1996 Marsden, J. [31], Cameroon K000182422
    Jan 1, 1996 Marsden, J. [16], Cameroon K000182423
    Jan 1, 1994 Cheek, M. [5779], Cameroon K000510840
    Jan 1, 1994 Cheek, M. [5158], Cameroon K000510841
    Jan 1, 1994 Wheatley, J.I. [652], Cameroon K000510863
    Jan 1, 1987 Ridley [12046], Malaysia K000290294 isotype
    Maitland, T.D. [326], Cameroon K000182424
    Maitland, T.D. [20], Cameroon K000182427
    Kerr, A.F.G. [14857], Thailand K000620789
    Kerr, A.F.G. [14084], Thailand K000620790
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19224], Thailand K000620791
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19224], Thailand K000620792
    Kerr, A.F.G. [16470], Thailand K000620793
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11255], Thailand K000620794
    Larsen, K. [10162], Thailand K000682765
    Larsen, K. [10215], Thailand K000682766
    Larsen, K. [10274], Thailand K000682767
    Larsen, K. [10673], Thailand K000682768
    Larsen, K. [4729], Thailand K000682770
    Johnson [1008], Ghana K000256720 Unknown type material
    Johnson [1008], Ghana K000256721 Unknown type material
    Chevalier [18755], Guinea K000256723 Unknown type material
    Smitinand, T. [1970], Thailand K000682761
    Smitinand, T. [4956], Thailand K000682762
    Smitinand, T. [5683], Thailand K000682763
    Smitinand, T. [5871], Thailand K000682764
    Nooteboom, H.P. [764], Thailand K000682769
    Salzmann [s.n.], Bahia K000003647 isotype
    Salzmann [s.n.], Bahia K000003648 isotype
    Salzmann [s.n.], Bahia K000003649 isotype
    Ridley [s.n.], Malaysia K000290295
    Sello [s.n.], Brazil K001101890
    Ryves, T.B. [KS95/044], Thailand K000682771
    Mphamba [82], Mozambique K000614297
    Brunt, M.A. [951], Cameroon K000182429
    Chuml, H. [420(HC)], Cameroon K000182428
    Jan 1, 1981 Friis, I. [760], Sudan Panicum bambusiculme K000255574 isotype

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 59 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 416.
    • in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 26
    • Chev. Bot. 724
    • F.T.A. 9: 731
    • Sp. Pl. 59 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
    • de Cordemoy, E.J. (1895). Flore de l'ile de la Réunion: 1-574. Librairie des sciences naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 429 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 60 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 45 (1960).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 507 (1956).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 32 (1947).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 2: 217 (1934).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 731 (1920).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 59 (1753).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0