1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum effusum R.Br.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is New Guinea to Australia, Norfolk Island.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rootstock evident. Butt sheaths villous. Basal innovations extravaginal. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 15-100 cm long; 2-3 -noded. Culm-internodes smooth, or scaberulous. Culm-nodes glabrous, or pubescent. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths pilose; with tubercle-based hairs. Ligule a ciliate membrane; 1 mm long. Leaf-blades flat, or involute; 5-25 cm long; 2-5.5 mm wide. Leaf-blade midrib prominent beneath. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; scabrous; pilose; sparsely hairy, or moderately hairy; hairy on both sides; with tubercle-based hairs. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; deciduous as a whole; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Panicle open; oblong; effuse; 8-50 cm long; with spikelets clustered towards branch tips. Primary panicle branches spreading; 1-4 -nate; profusely divided; branching divaricately; 10-20 cm long. Panicle branches stiff; scabrous; glabrous; glabrous in axils, or pubescent in axils. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 2-10 mm long; tip discoid.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or ovate; dorsally compressed; acute, or acuminate; 2.25-2.75 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures; readily shedding fertile florets.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or ovate; dorsally compressed; acute, or acuminate; 2.25-2.75 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures; readily shedding fertile florets.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.5(-0.66) length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute, or acuminate. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; elliptic; 0.9 length of spikelet; membranous; 7 -veined; acuminate. Palea of lower sterile floret 0.5 length of lemma. Fertile lemma elliptic, or orbicular; dorsally compressed; 1.5-1.75 mm long; indurate; light brown; dull, or shiny; without keel. Lemma surface smooth, or papillose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Asia-tropical: Papuasia. Australasia: Australia.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Fl NSW 1993.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    New Guinea, New South Wales, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia

    Panicum effusum R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Coveny, R. [6078], Australia K000386943
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000674397
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000674398
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], South Australia K000674399
    Brown, R. [6105], New South Wales K000674402 Unknown type material
    Blake, S. T. [138], Queensland K000674334 Unknown type material

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 191 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0