1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum fluviicola Steud.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Robust to slender, tufted perennial, the base glabrous, rarely sparsely hispid; culms stout, (2–)3.5–7 mm. wide at the base, (30–)60–230 cm. high, often branched upwards.
    Leaves
    Leaf-sheaths ciliate on the margins or glabrous, occasionally hairy all over, often purple tinged; blades linear, (13–)25–50 cm. long, 3–12 mm. wide, tapering at the base, glabrous or pilose, with a firm, almost pungent, pointed tip.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle oblong, 10–45 cm. long, usually erect, rarely drooping.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate, 2–2.5(–3) mm. long, often purplish, glabrous; lower glume broadly ovate, 1/2–2/3 the length of the spikelet, 3–5-nerved, often scabrous on the midnerve, acuminate or produced into an awn-point; upper glume ovate, 5-nerved, acute to acuminate; lower lemma, ovate, 5-nerved, acute to acuminate, male, its palea well developed; upper lemma pale and glossy.
    Habitat
    Seasonally wet grassland on heavy clay soils or on sandy soils of river banks; 350–1630 m.
    Distribution
    scattered throughout tropical Africa T1 T4 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Tufted perennial with robust unbranched or sparsely branched culms 60–230 cm. high.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 25–50 cm. long and 3–12 mm. wide, linear, tapering to a pungent apex.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 15–45 cm. long, oblong, moderately to much branched, the branches appressed or ascending, loose or contracted.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets mostly shortly pedicelled, 2–2.5 mm. long, ovate, glabrous; inferior glume 1/2–2/3 the length of the spikelet, broadly ovate, (1)3–5-nerved, recurved acuminate or produced into an awn point; superior glume 5(7)-nerved, ovate, recurved acute or acuminate; inferior lemma 5-nerved, ovate, acute to acuminate, its palea well developed, enclosing a male flower, superior lemma smooth and glossy.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths glabrous. Culms erect; (30-)60-230 cm long; (2-)3.5-7 mm diam. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades (13-)25-50 cm long; 3-12 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex attenuate; hardened.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong; 10-45 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 2-2.5(-3) mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 2-2.5(-3) mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; recurved at apex. Lower glume ovate; 0.5-0.7 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume apex acuminate; muticous, or mucronate. Upper glume ovate; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute to acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1.2-1.3 length of fertile lemma; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 3 -veined; acute to acuminate. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 1.5-2 mm long; indurate; pallid; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    A reed-like grass 1–2 m. high
    Leaf sheaths
    Basal sheaths glabrous or sometimes pubescent
    Ecology
    Streamsides, flood plains and moist soils.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Panicum fluviicola Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2000 Laegaard, S. [21358], Burkina Faso K000212046
    Jan 1, 1997 Laegaard, S. [18389], Burkina Faso K000212047
    Jan 1, 1997 Madsen, J.E. [6130], Burkina Faso K000212033
    Jan 1, 1997 Madsen, J.E. [6130], Burkina Faso K000212034
    Jan 1, 1997 Madsen, J.E. [6130], Burkina Faso K000212035
    Jan 1, 1997 Madsen, J.E. [6130], Burkina Faso K000212036
    Chevalier, A. [2272], Guinea K000257012 syntype
    Chevalier, A. [2189 bis], Guinea K000257015 syntype
    Chevalier [10511], Guinea K000365017 syntype
    Chevalier [8956], Guinea K000365019 syntype
    Chevalier [2273], Guinea K000257011 syntype
    Chevalier [8936], Guinea K000257013 syntype
    Chevalier [2190] K000257014 syntype
    Chevalier [9090], Guinea K000257016 syntype
    Vogel [24], Nigeria K000365012 syntype
    Vogel [24], Nigeria K000365013 syntype
    Barter [728], Nigeria K000365014 syntype
    Dalziel [1329], Nigeria K000365011 syntype
    Lecard [251], Guinea K000365018 syntype
    Dalton [s.n], Nigeria K000365016 syntype
    Holland [280], Nigeria K000365015 Unknown type material
    Pobeguin, M. [493] K000257017 syntype
    Scholz [142], Burkina Faso K000212037
    Farrow, R.A. [40], Mali K000212048
    Matthes, H.D.r. [6], Mali K000212049
    Naegele, A. [24], Burkina Faso K000212045

    First published in Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 89 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 689.
    • Syn. Pl. Glum. 1: 89 (1854)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 432 (1972).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 2: 196 (1934).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 689 (1920).
    • Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1: 89 (1854).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/