1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum hirtum Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Niger to Eritrea and S. Africa, S. Mexico to Tropical America.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 500 m.; Orinoquia.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 20-80 cm long. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base amplexicaul. Leaf-blades ovate; 8-12 cm long; 10-25 mm wide; membranous. Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins. Leaf-blade surface pilose. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong, or ovate; dense; 7-15 cm long. Primary panicle branches spreading. Panicle branches capillary; tangled; glandular. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; straight, or tilted on the pedicel; dorsally compressed; gibbous; acute; 1.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; straight, or tilted on the pedicel; dorsally compressed; gibbous; acute; 1.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent, or pilose. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; herbaceous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent, or pilose. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; hyaline; 5 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 1 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface papillose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, and Brazil.
    Reference
    Paniceae. =Panicum heterostachyum. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Erect or ascending annual up to 60 cm high
    Ecology
    In shade.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms 20–80 cm. long, erect or ascending from a decumbent base.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades ovate or narrowly ovate, 8–12 cm. long, 10–25 mm. wide, amplexicaul, thin, cross-veins present, pilose, finely acute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ovate to oblong, 7–15 cm. long, finely and densely branched, the branches spreading and appearing somewhat tangled, the spikelets often bent at right-angles to the pedicel, glandular patches usually conspicuous on the branches.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate, 1.5 mm. long, asymmetrical, sparsely to densely pubescent or pilose, slightly apiculate; lower glume oblong, as long as the spikelet, 3-nerved; upper glume ovate, herbaceous, 5-nerved; lower lemma hyaline, 5-nerved, sterile, its palea well developed; upper lemma pale, verruculose.
    Habitat
    Deciduous bushland or wooded grassland on poor, sandy soils; 30–1700 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K4 K6 K7 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U4 throughout tropical Africa
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Annual with culms 20–80 cm. long, erect or ascending.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 8–12 cm. long and 10–25(40) mm. wide, ovate or narrowly ovate, amplexicaul, thin, acute or acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 4–15 cm. long, much-branched, the branches rather stiff and bearing conspicuous glandular patches.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.5 mm. long, asymmetrically ovate, sparsely to densely pubescent or pilose; inferior glume as long as the spikelet, 3-nerved; superior glume 5-nerved; inferior lemma hyaline, 5-nerved, its palea moderately developed, sterile; superior lemma and palea membranous, not glossy, scaberulous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Belize, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cabinda, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Guyana, Kenya, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Panicum hirtum Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Eiten, G. [4709], Brazil K001101993
    Steudner [1009], Eritrea K000255573 isotype
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [1371], Brazil K001101994
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [1280], Brazil K001101995
    Spruce [2687], Brazil K001102302
    Bidgood, S. [5884], Tanzania Panicum heterostachyum K000468541
    Bidgood, S. [5582], Tanzania Panicum heterostachyum K000468842

    First published in Encycl. 4: 741 (1798)

    Accepted by

    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/