1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum humile Steud.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; slender; 18-70(-90) cm long. Leaf-sheaths outer margin glabrous, or hairy. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades tapering towards sheath; 7-20 cm long; 2-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade apex acute, or acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Panicle open; oblong, or ovate; 5-15(-23) cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending, or spreading. Panicle branches straight, or flexuous; scaberulous; glabrous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 1.5-2 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 1.5-2 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume ovate; 0.5-0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate; muticous, or mucronate. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 3(-5) -veined; acuminate. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 1-1.5 mm long; indurate; pallid; shiny; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia.
    Reference
    Paniceae. =Panicum walense. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual 30–60 cm. high
    Inflorescences
    A delicate bushy inflorescence
    Ecology
    Often forming a dense cover over shallow or disturbed sites on moist soils.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Slender annual with branching culms (15)20–60 cm. high.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 7–20 cm. long ovate or ovate oblong, moderately to much branched, the branches often fine and tangled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.5–2 mm. long, ovate; inferior glume 1/2–3/4 the length of the spikelet, (1)3-nerved, acuminate or with an awn point; superior glume 3(5)-nerved,acuminate; inferior lemma 3(5)-nerved, sterile; superior lemma pale and glossy.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Slender annual; culms erect, branched, 18–70(–90) cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-sheaths occasionally ciliate on the margins; blades linear, 7–20 cm. long, 2–6 mm. wide, tapering at the base, flat, usually glabrous, acute or acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle usually scarcely exserted from the uppermost leaf-sheath, ovate to oblong, 5–15(–23) cm. long, modestly branched, the branches scaberulous, not pilose, spreading or ascending, occasionally flexuous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.5–2 mm. long, glabrous; lower glume 1/2–3/4 the length of the spikelet, ovate, (1–)3-nerved, acuminate, occasionally with a very short awn-point; upper glume ovate, 3–5-nerved, acuminate; lower lemma 3(–5)-nerved, sterile, its palea well developed; upper lemma pale and glossy.
    Habitat
    Damp situations on sandy soils in various types of vegetation; 775–1600 m.
    Distribution
    Senegal to Sudan and south to Zambia T6 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Ivory Coast, Laos, Madagascar, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sudan, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia

    Introduced into:

    Pakistan

    Panicum humile Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13384], Thailand K000620749
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11333], Thailand K000620750
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11333], Thailand K000620751
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11333], Thailand K000620752
    Sorensen, Th. [5070], Thailand K000682742
    Sorensen, Th. [5480], Thailand K000682743
    Walker [s.n.], Sri Lanka K000245218
    Chevalier [2235], Senegal K000365006 syntype
    Smitinand, T. [6079], Thailand K000682740
    Barter, C. [886], Nigeria K000365007 syntype
    Floto, F. [7773], Thailand K000682744
    T.S. [11647], Thailand K000682741
    s.coll. [3243], Sri Lanka K000245604
    s.coll. [3243], Sri Lanka K000245217

    First published in Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 84 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Veldkamp, J.F. & al. (2013). A revision of Mnesithea (Gramineae - Rottboelliinae) in Malesia and Thailand Blumea 58: 277-292.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0