1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum hymeniochilum Nees

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms geniculately ascending; slender; 14-120 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base broadly rounded, or cordate. Leaf-blades spreading, or reflexed; lanceolate; 1.2-7(-8.5) cm long; 1.2-5(-10) mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose; with simple hairs and clavellate hairs. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong; 2-10 cm long; contracted about primary branches. Primary panicle branches bearing spikelets almost to the base. Panicle branches glabrous (rarely), or pilose; with simple hairs and clavellate hairs. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels straight.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; obtuse; 2-2.5(-3) mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; obtuse; 2-2.5(-3) mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.5-0.66 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 0-1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7-9 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2-3 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Prostrate perennial, rarely with the clavellate hairs absent
    Ecology
    Moist places.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Aquatic annual with slender culms 14–120 cm. long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 1.2–7(8.5) cm. long and 2–5(10) mm. wide, lanceolate, acute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 2–10 cm. long, oblong, pilose with both tapering and clavellate hairs, rarely the clavellate hairs absent.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–2.5(3) mm. long, oblong; inferior glume 1/2–2/3 the length of the spikelet, 0–1-nerved; superior glume 7–9-nerved; inferior lemma 7–9-nerved, sterile, its palea poorly developed; superior lemma shiny.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Aquatic annual; culms slender, ascending, 14–120 cm. long, often rooting at the lower nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades spreading or more often deflexed, narrowly lanceolate, 1.2–7(–8.5) cm. long, 1.2–5(–10) mm. wide, widened or cordate at the base, membranous, glabrous to densely pilose with both tapering and clavellate hairs, antrorsely scaberulous on the margins, bluntly acute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle oblong, 2–10 cm. long, pilose with both tapering and clavellate hairs, rarely glabrous, sparsely branched, the secondary branches often contracted and then the primary branches raceme-like; pedicels stiff.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets oblong, 2–2.5(–3) mm. lone, pale or bright green, often purple tinged, blunt; lower glume narrowly ovate, 1/2–2/3 the length of the spikelet, 0–1-nerved, blunt; upper glume ovate-oblong, 7–9-nerved, acute; lower lemma ovate-oblong, 7–9-nerved, sterile, its palea poorly developed.
    Habitat
    River margins, swamps and moist meadows; 700–3000 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 T1 T2 T3 T7 T8 U2 U3 U4 Guinée to Ethiopia and southwards to South Africaalso in Madagascar
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Glands capitate. Culms decumbent, or rambling; weak; 100-200 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes glandular; distally pilose; with capitate hairs. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaf-sheaths glandular; pilose; with tubercle-based hairs and capitate hairs. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades spreading, or reflexed; conduplicate, or involute; 1-10 cm long; 1-7 mm wide; eglandular, or glandular. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy; with capitate hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 4-10 cm long; 2-6 cm wide; contracted about secondary branches. Primary panicle branches 4-5 cm long. Panicle branches glandular; pilose; with simple hairs and capitate hairs. Spikelets solitary, or in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile, or sessile and pedicelled. Pedicels 2-4 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 2-2.3 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 2-2.3 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.33-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute; muticous, or mucronate. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-9 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-9 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; dorsally compressed; 2-2.3 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma margins convolute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Gr Madag 1997.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Ethiopia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Panicum hymeniochilum Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Caille [18139] K000257019 holotype
    Drège [4247], South Africa K000282468 isotype
    Drège [4292], South Africa K000282469 isotype
    Snowden, J.D. [1188], Uganda K000255553 holotype
    Snowden, J.D. [1188], Uganda K000255554 holotype
    Rehmann [8049], South Africa K000255480

    First published in Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill.: 46 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. Afr. Austr.: 46 (1841).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 429 (1972).
    • Nees, Fl. Afr. Austr.: 46 (1841).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0